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Semi-centennial celebration of the Indiana State Normal School January 6-9, 1920 in commemoration of the completion of fifty years of work
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TitleSemi-centennial celebration of the Indiana State Normal School January 6-9, 1920 in commemoration of the completion of fifty years of work
DescriptionProgram and speeches for Indiana State's fiftieth anniversary in 1920.
Transcription~ l ~~~ .................. .. . .. --,..,.. - -~ .. ~ ··'-~ .... ~ .... v~-- ... ~ .. ~-.;:~ I I ;f'• •. ·•', The Semi-Centennial Celebration of the Indiana StateN ormal Sch~ol 1n January 6-9~ 1920 Commemoration of the Completion of Fifty Years of Work Indiana· State Normal School Bulletin Vol; XIII. June, 1920. No.4. Publiohed quarterly by the Indiana State Normal School. Terre Haute. Entered ao oecond · class matter, November 5. 1907. at the Postoffice at Terre Haute, Ind .• under the Act of Con~re" of July 16, 1894. .:, ,' ~ I ' '\: 'I,/ ' ~ •I,'' ! : i: ,'' '. ',:· Board of Trustees Members SANFORD M. KELTNER FRANK C. BALL . . . WILLIAM C. BALL . LINEAS N. HINES . CHARLES E. COFFIN . Officers SANFORD M. KEI.;TNER . WM. C. BALL .. JoHN T. BEASLEY . Anderson . . Muncie . Terre Haute . Indianapolis . Indianapolis . President . Secretary . Treasurer '' !' ':! Foreword On January 6, 1920, the Indiana State Normal School completed fiftyyears-·of work. Just a half century earlier on January 6, 1870, the school formally opened its doors for the reception of students, and began its work in the training of teachers for the public schools of the state. The fiftieth anniversary, even in the life of an institu­tion, is a noteworthy event. It, therefore, seemed desir­able that appropriate and fitting exercises should mark so important an occasion. Such a celebration, too, it was felt, should be of a substantial and permanent value, and should not wholly expend itself in academic parades and the mere public exhibition of buildings and equipment. It was believed that the spirit of the institution during the two score·and ten years of its existence could find no more appropriate expression than in a great educational con­ference of scholars and educators, where the history of the past might be reviewed and interpreted anew; where the current educational problems, now at the front, might be critically analyzed and weighed, and where, with a fair degree of prophetic vision, the questions of tomorrow might be sensed. Accordingly the school issued a call for a general edu­cational conference, to which it invited as speakers, a number of eminent scholars and distinguished educators. A program was prepared extending over nine sessions, and Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, January 7-9, were ·designated as the conference days. A general invitation to teachers, alumni of the school, and to friends of educa­tion genera.lly,. was extended, and the entire student body was asked to suspend its regular work and give its entire attention to the work of the conference. 5 ', 1: ''' ' I 'I I, : :,I ; ·.I. .. 1 \: i. Although the regular conference did not begin until Wednesday forenoon, January 7, several social functions preceded the formal opening. On Monday evening, J anu~ ary 5, the citizens of Terre Haute, anxious to show their interest in the Normal School and their appreciation of its fine leadership, gave a· complimentary dinner at the Hotel Deming for President and Mrs. Parsons. The ad­dresses of citizens all bore testimony of the concern and the pride which the citizens of Terre Haute felt in the work and management of the Indiana State Normal School. On Tuesday, the Rotary Club ol the city of Terre Haute invited the faculty to a complimenta;ry luncheon at the Hotel Deming, and by its gracious hospitality and in pub­lic utterances expressed its desire to support .in every way the larger interests of theN ormal School. On Tuesday evening a public reception was held at the Deming Hotel, very largely attended, and honored by the presence of the Governor of the State and his wife. · The first session of the conference convened · at 9 :30 o'clock on Wednesday morning in Normal Hall, Mr. Wil­liam C. Ball, the Secretary of the Board of Trustees pre­siding. It seemed peculiarly fitting that the first speaker should be the Honorable James P. Goodrich, the Governor of the State. He spoke on the mutual ol; ligations of state and school in maintaining and in furthering a sound Americanism in our political and social life. In a brief but eloquent address, he stressed the new obligations rest­ing upon the state and the public schools in preserving those fimdamental American ideals which undergird our national life. President Parsons' address was a fine review of thehis­tory of the school, and of the educational ideals that shaped its work for a half century. President Winthrop E. Stone, of Purdue University, gave an inspiring ad­dress on the enlarging scope of higher education. 6 ! '~:.. .. M+eW - ··~~ .,.... - - . ... ... ' - ... ... _.._ •'· :, : The session was made memorable by a very pleasant in­terruption, not scheduled on the printed program. At the conclusion of President Parsons' address a larO'e deleO"a­tion of citizens of Terre Haute filed into the \an :nd through their delegated spokesman, Attorney Ge' orge Oscar Dix, asked permission to have a few minutes' time on the program. This being promptly granted by the pre­siding officer, Mr. Dix, in a very happily worded address presented to President Parsons, on behalf of the large company of citizens with him, a large and handsome lov­ing cup, as an expression of their love and esteem for him. Then addressing the Board of Trustees he asked permis­sion to have placed on the walls of the Normal School a large bronze memorial tablet as a further tribute from the citizens of Terre Haute to the President of the School. President Parsons taken unawares, and not able to con­ceal wholly the deep emotion which this expression of good will had produced in him, responded briefly and thanked the committee of citizens for their kindness. In addition to this gift from the citizens of Terre Haute, the College of St. Mary-of-the-\Voods presented the Presi­dent with a beautifully inscribed roll, bearing testimony to the high regard with which this neighboring institution regarded his services as an educator. It would be out of place here to re'iriew the entire pro­gram of the conference. The themes of the various ad­dresses, and the names of the speakers are indicated in the detailed I)rooTam printed elsewhere in this bulletin. b ' . It is a matter of regret that it is impracticable at this time to print all the addresses in full. Such a series of volumes would have been a substantial contribution to current educational literature. Two addresses, however, are given in full in this issue. These addresses touched the early history and the work of the -Normal School ' so closely and so directly, an.d being the first-hand statements of an eye-witness and actiVe par- 7 ·,., .. : 8 ticipant of it all, it seemed these should be put in penna­nent fonn, and preserved for future reference. These two addresses are those delivered by the President of the schpol. The attendance throughout the sessions was very grati­fying; on several occasions testing the seating capacity of Normal Hall. Perhaps the best comment on the success and value.of this educational gathering, is noting that after reviewing the work of the several sessions, the Faculty of the Nor­mal School by formal resolution voted, that Foundation Day, January 6, shall be obsetved hereafter annually, if possible, by the holding of a school conference, which shall serve as a clearing house for the educational problems of the day. I I I l I I r General Programme Wednesday. January seven. 9:30 a.m. William C ... Ball. Secretary of the Board of Trustees. presiding. Music: Community Singing. Professor Lowell M. Tilson. · Address: Indiana and Education. By 'the Honorable James P. Goodrich, Governor of the State. Address: The First Half Century of the Indiana State .Normal SchooL By Dr. William W. Parsons, President of the Indiana State Normal School. Address: Education As a Factor In the So­lution of Present Day Problems. By Dr. Winthrop E. Stone, President of Purdue University. 9 'J.vT ednesday, January seven, 2:00 p. m. S. M. Keltner, President of the Board of Trustees, presiding. Music. Address: Fifty Years of Education In Indiana. :Qy L. N. Hines, · State Superintendent of Public Instruction. Address: Fitting Our Rural Education to the Needs of Our Democracy, By Dr. W. W. Black, '92, Professor, Indiana University. Address: Consolidated Schools, By Lee L. Driver, Director of the Bureau of Rural Education of Pennsylvania. Address: The ·Salary Question, · By Dr. Robert ]. Aley, President of the University of Mai~e. Inspection of Home Economics Departm~nt and social time over the teacups. 10 :I I :I .I .• ,J.., . : ~~ 11' I' . ', t I Wednesday, January seven, 8:00p.m.· Professor Charles M. Curry, presiding. Music. The Greatest Current Educational Problems, Dr. Elmer B. Bryan, '89, President of Colgate University. Dr. Lotus D. Coffman, '96, President of the University of Minnesota. Thursday, January eight, 9:30 a.m. Professor Frank S. Bogardus, presiding. Music. The StateN ormal School of the Middle West, Dr. William W. Parsons, President of the Indiana State Norm~l School. Dr. H. H. Seerley, President of the Iowa State Teachers' College. Dr. David F elmley, President of the Illinois Normal University, 11 :_:,i, '. :I I. Thursday, January eight, 2:00 p. m . . Dr. Louis ]. Rettger, presiding. Music. Teacher Training, Dr. E. W. Bohannon, '87, President of the State Normal School. Duluth, I. Minnesota. I Dr. John E. McGilvrey, '90, President of the Kent State Normal College, Ohio. Dr. W. P. Morgan, '95, President of the Western Illinois State Normal School, Macomb. Dr. William F. Clarke, '98, President of the North Dakota State Normal School. Minot. Thursday, January eight. ·s p. m . . Students' Evening. Recital: 12 Jules Falk, Violinist. Estelle Wentworth, Soprano. Eugenia Hubbard, Pianist. 1 ,· ,. Friday. January nine, 9:30 a. m. Professor Ulysses 0. Cox, presiding. Music. Address: The Present Status of the Profes­sion of Teaching, By the Honorable P. P. Claxton, U. S. Commissioner of Education. Address: By Dr .. George L. Mackintosh, President of Wabash College. Address:. By J. G. Callicott, State Vocational Director. Address: A Retrospect and a Challenge. By ]ames 0. Engleman, '01. Superintendent of Schools, D.ecatur, Illinois. Friday noon, January nine. Luncheon. at the cafeteria for th~ returned service men. Luncheon in Home Economics Department for Faculty and visitors~ 13 ,-·,. . ... . .. ': :· •I . ~ i ' . '',I, Friday, January nine, 2:00 p. m. Miss Mary Moran, presiding. Music: Community Singing,· Mrs. Carrie B. Adams. Address: By Mrs. Demarchus Brown, Butler College. Address: By Mrs. Edith Whitenack Dorsey, '94, Alton, Illinois. Address: By Miss Ethel Burton, '08, Evansville College. Friday, ]anuary nine, 8:00 p. m. President William W. Parsons, presiding. Music. Address: Education for the New Era. By Dr. Edward Howard Griggs. J4 I I ' ·- :1 I ~··= - - . -"" . . ' ' ... . ~ - I .~. .• I ' J The First Half Century of the Indiana State Normal School By President William Wood Parsons It would be altogether natural and allowable for you to inquire by what right I assume to speak for the first half­century of the Indiana State Normal School. The answer to this question will be indicated by two or three simple facts, unimportant in themselves, but which will serve to show that the speaker is not without some first-hand knowledge on the subject assigned him. As a native born citizen of Terre Haute, my first school days were spent in the old County Seminary building which stood on the spot now occupied by this, the admin­istration or main building of the State Nor.g1al School. It was here that, under the rather efficient, though not al­ways attractive, and persuasive tuition of the old-time schoolmaster, Uncle Bennie Hayes, that I, in common with many Terre Haute boys, acquired the merest rudiments of education. Twelve years later, when the newly established State Normal School opened its doors to receive students, January 6, 1870, I chanced to be one of fewer than a score that enrolled on the first day. During the fifty years that have elapsed since that day, I have been directly connected with the institution forty-seven years-as student·, instruc­tor, professor, vice-president and president. It has been my fortune to lmow personally every one of the hundred or more men that have served the state. as.trustees of the Normal School; to know, more or less intimately, everjr one of the several hundred men and women who have dur- . ing this half century served the school as members of its · faculty; and of the fifty-five thousand young men and women who have attended the school, I have at least known personally the great majority. I have known the 15 2 •itj '',.,:.,J ::.l.::. 1 ,r,' . , I . .. ., J.; ','1 1, THE SEMt~CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION school, therefore, at every stage of its development and in every period of its history. In view of these facts, it will not seem presumptuous, I am, sure, for me to assume a reminiscent mood and bring before you some of the lead-ing facts in the school's history. . So far as I know or have been able to learn, the first definite step toward the establishment of a state normal school in Indiana for the training of teachers .was taken in 1858, when Dr. E. T. Spottswood, a member of the General Assembly from Vermillion County, and later a resident of this city, introduced a resolution providing for the appointment of a committee to inquire into the de­sirability and feasibility of establishing a school for the training of teachers for the public schools of the state. ·whether the committee which this resolution called for was appointed, and if so, whether it submitted to the next General Assembly a report on the subject of establishing a state normal school, I have not been able to learn. At any rate, nothing was done with the subject for several years. Probably the rumblings of sectional disagreement and strife which even then were in the public ear, and, later, the rupture of the Civil War led: to the postpone­ment of this educational project. But at the first oppor~ tunity, after the close of the war, the agitation of the sub­ject was renewed, and in December 1865, the General As­sembly enacted tlie law which c~eated this institution and under the general provisions of which the school has car- ', ried on its work for a half century. This law defined with strict accuracy, the purpose of the school. It was to be established and maintained for the sole purpose· of preparing teachers for teaching in the pub­lic schools of Indiana. To restrict its work to this one field and department of education, the law required, and still requires, every student on entering to declare his in­tention to become a teacher in the public schools of Indiana and to promise to teach in these schools, if practicable, for 16 ' I ~~ ~ - ! ,. ' 1;,.},'·' .• ''!;' j· ........ _ .. J:. li l I· I I I THE SEMI- CENTENNIAL CELEBRATIO-N a period at least twice as long as he remains a student in the school. It further required him as 'a condition of re­ceiving a diploma, to demonstrate his ability to teach and ma1_1age a school by practical successful experience for a penod of not less than two years after graduating. Thi_s act of 1865 authorized the board of trustees tore­ceive proposals of lands, buildings and money from towns or cities of the state that desired to secure the location of the school, and required the board to establish the school in the town or city that offered the greatest inducements to secure it. It maynot be generally known, and whether or not it is a matter of common knowledge, it should be reiterated and emphasized that, of all the municipalities of Indiana, Terre Haute was the only city that manifested the slightest interest in this new institution of learning and that_offered any inducement to secure it. Terre Haute proposed to donate the block of ground three hundre !._feet square, easily worth at this time more than a hundred thousand dollars, on which the building we are occupying at this time stands, to give the sum of fifty thousand dol­lars in cash toward the erection of the building, and to enter into contract with the state to maintain forever one­half of all the expenses incident to keeping the buildings and grounds of this institution in proper repair. I want to take this occasion to say that Terre Haute has never faltered or hesitated in the matter of keeping this contract. During the more than fifty years that have elapsed since this contract was made and entered into, Terre Haute has never failed to meet her obligation to pay one-half the expenses of repairs to all the buildings ~nd grounds of the institution. In addition to this, and Wit~­out any legal obligationwhatever, this city gave an ad.di- ·. tional fifty thousand in cash to aid in the reconstructiOn of buildings destroyed by fire in 1886. In these days of tens, and even hundreds of millions for educational purposes, fifty thousand and one hundred 17 ',,,, ·., ,, ;!'; .. ·I .... ·· THE SEMI- CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION thousand may seem mere items, but fifty-five years ago they loomed large in the popular imagination. ·I This offer of grounds and money was accepted. The legislature made several appropriations for the construc­tion of the building, and by January 1870 it was thought possible to open the school. It would be difficult for any one to give you an adequate picture or realization of the conditions under which the Indiana State Normal School began its work fifty years ago yesterday. The building was a rather imposing four­story structure, quite similar in architecture to the present A main building of Rose Polytechnic Institute. This was a semi-gothic or mixed style of architecture much in vogue for schools, hospitals and other public buildings fifty or sixty years ago. It stood on the east side of the tract of land donated by the city to the state, and th~ remainder of the lot was one immense pile of sand, broken stone, and debris, with two or three narrow paths leading from the street to the front door. The building was only. half com­pleted. The basement and fourth story were unplastered and wholly in the rough. The second and third stories were plastered and floored, most of the doors and windows were in· place, and the usual trim-casings, base boards, etc.-had been put in before the building fund was ex­hausted. There was no money left to complete the build­ing or even to clear the ground and lay the walks to the doors. There were no lighting fixtures of any kind, and, so far as the building was heated at all, it was by means of a few large, rough cannon stoves. The halls were as cold as outdoors itself. l · The school had only the most necessary furniture and absolutely no equipment with which to begin its work. It did not have the semblance of a laboratory, not a map, not a piece of apparatus of any description, and its library consisted of a Bible and one unabridged dictio~ary. It was a very near approach to.the log with Hopkins at one 18 THE SEMI- CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION .. end and Garfield at the other, the unfortunate difference being that neither Mark Hopkins nor James A. Garfield was on the ground. The sixth day of January, 187,0, was a cold, raw, bleak day with a "nipping, eager air" when fewer than a score of prospective students, all but two or three from Terre Haute and Vigo County, made their way up the narrow winding paths between the sand hills on either side and offered themselves as students with whom to begin the work of teacher-training in Indiana. As a matter of neces­sity in part, no doubt, they were all accepted and the school made its start. With the present entrance condi­tions, not more than three or four of these applicants could have been admitted. As I look back upon that opening day and reflect for a moment upon the conditions which existed at that time; I hardly see how those in aJUthority had the courage to try to organize and open a normal school. A shelter from _the weather, it' is true, but without any of the facilities, ap­pliances and· conditions which are now regarded as essen­tial to school work; and perhaps worst of all, no popular sympathy with the idea and thought of professional train­ing of men and women for school teaching. The whole spirit, atmosphere and environment were as negative and discouraging as the building and grounds were barren, bleak and forbidding. For the first few days the faculty consisted of William A. Jones, the president, and Professor Bosworth. Pro­fessor Bosworth had been a teacher in the Terre Haute Female College, a school for young women, for which the l:milding that afterwards became and is now the property of St. Anthony's Hospital, was originally constructed. A -few days later a Miss Newell, who had shortly before re- -turned from a European trip with Mark Twain, an ac-count of which is given in one of this celebrated humorist's ·best books-"Innocents Abroad"-was added to the fac- 19 THE SEMI-CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION . ulty. A little later Miss Mary A. Bruce and Miss Amanda P. Funnelle joined the teaching force, and still later, Pro­fessors Nathan Newby and Lewis H. Jones were added. Miss Newell, who had had no training nor exp~rience fit­ting her for work in a normal school, dropped out at the end of a few weeks, quickly followed by Professor Bos­worth. The five faculty members left-President Jones, Miss Funnell, Miss Bruce, and Professors Lewis H. · Jones and Nathan Newby~took hold of the work in earnest, organized the school and put it on its first feet. A little later, four additional teachers came into the faculty -Cyrus Hodgin, James H. Wilson, J. T. Scovell, and Benjamin C. Burt. These nine men and women, with Miss Ruth Morris (present at these exercises today, I am very happy to say, as Mrs: Ruth Morris Kersey), Rosa King anti Sarah Donaghue, as the training school teach­ers, constituted the teaching force mainly during the school's first years. It was they, under the leadership and direction of President vVilliam A. Jones, who de­termined the early policy of the school and stamped upon it a character somewhat unique among the normal schools of the country and which has persisted as its thought and spirit to this day. In· another address at a later stage of these Semi­Centennial exercises, I shall attempt to characterize and describe more accurately and in some degree of detail the underlying doctrines and principles on which the school was founded. For the present I wish only to emphasize the fact that 'the early work of the school laid unusual stress on two things-thoroughness in teaching and logical or-. ganization of subject-matter. William A. Jones and the· teachers associated with him in this early day had no pa­tience with the slip-shod, superficial teaching so common in the schools of a half century ago, and their reaction against their unscientific and p~rely capricious methods of school work probably carried them to an extreme of 20 ·. I I' i '! :I il ~. \ ': THE SEMI- CENTENNIAL CELEBRATIO~ thoroughness and system in the instruction given in the Normal School in its early years. But it was a healthy wholesome reaction from the loose methods formal in~ struction and slavery to text-bookS so. prev~lent in the schools of that day. It is not too much to claim that the Indiana ·State Normal School, under the direction of President William A. Jones and the nine or ten men and women associated with him during the ten years of his presidency of the school, made a distinct, positive and enduring contribu­tion to the educational thought and practice of the schools of Indiana. It had the opportunity to do this and the time was ripe for a forward step. In a word, the State Normal School planted itself on the doctrine that there is a rational foundation for all educational proce­dure, that it is possible to discover these rationally deter­mined principles and to train men and women in the con­scious application of these in all their work as teachers. This, I believe, could fairly be considered as a compre­hensive and correct statement of the basic thought of the Indiana State Normal School. As I shall try to set forth in another address, it was maintained and promulgated as the underlying doctrine of the school that it is possible by proper study of certain subjects to found all teaching of all subjects on scientific principles and thus reduce to a reasonable minimum the teacher's experimental period in the school room. This was m3w educational doctrine in Indiana and it frequently excited much opposition, and sometimes not .a little ridicule. More than once in those early days I heard the theory of scientific pedagogy ridiculed as vis- . ionary and impractical, and at the State Teachers' Asso­ciation on several occasions the doctrine of orderly method, except as derived from teaching experience in the school .room was scoffed at as new-fangled and unreal. So radically' and completely has public sentiment changed 21 :: 1) THE SEMI-CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION that it is doubtful if to-day any teacher in I:ridiana would have the temerity to stand before an assembly of teachers and deny the existence and validity of a body of educa­tional principles that should be mastered before entering the school room as a teacher. ,go far as I am informed, the Indiana State Normal School was the first institution in Indiana to undertake the systematic professional preparation of teachers for the work of the school room. Prior to this time it was the current assumption of the educational world that scholar­ship- the knowledge of subject ,matter-was the only qualification for teaching that could be directly acquired in a course of preparation for the school robm. Let me not be misunderstood. Scholarsli.ip-large, liberal, ac­curate, rich scholarship-must be the presupposition and necessary foundation of all efficient, inspiring instruction; and I am altogether convinced that the pervading and prevailing sin of early normal school instruction in the United States was the substitution of method for matter. In their early history the normal schools in some degree ignored scholarship as the basis of preparation for the school room, and laid undue stress relatively on the peda­gogical aspects of education. Too often the student was left to acquire a know ledge of something to teach after he had learned how to teach the something he had yet to acquire. The natural and logical process was reversed. They learned how to teach, and then afterwards learned something to teach by the method acquired. However, the realization that there is a valid and vitally necessary· element of training for the school room which is addi~ tiona! to and over and above this element.of scholarship had its beginning in Indiana about a half century ago. To-day there is no institution in ·Indiana, if, indeed, in the United States, which publicity invites prospective teachers to enter its doors and which professes to train 22 'i \ f.' ~I ' 1 THE SEMI-CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION teachers for the schools that omits or ignores this aspect of the teacher's proposition. I wish at this moment to speak a few words about the · character of the young men and wo~en constituting the student-body of the Indiana State Normal School during its early years. · Fifty years ago there were probably not ten high schools in Indiana, and what schools there were had been estab­lished over the protest and ·in spite of the strong, but quiet opposition of a very considerable element of our people. Some of the leading citizens and most promi­nent lawyers of the state maintained that the high school was not contemplated, and, indeed, was precluded by the constitutional provision imposing upon the General As­sembly the duty of establishing a syste~ of free common public schools. The result was that during the first ten or fifteen years of the State Normal School its students, with very few exceptions, came with little more than a know ledge · of the common school branches-arithmetic, geography, English grammar, physiology, United States history, and so on; A few of them knew a little Latin, algebra, general history, geometry, ~nd physics, the lat­ter under the name of natural philosophy. But I wish to emphasize the point that they did know something about these subjects. N otw~thstanding the fact that the , schools were conducted in the crude school houses of the state, with little equipment and under methods long since discarded, these men and women did know something about these subjects, and the very limited range of their study had given them a somewhat intensive knowledge of these common school branches. · These first students were twenty or twenty-five years old, many of them qlder than this. Nine-tenths of t~em, under the system of examinations that then prevailed, had been able to secure licenses and had taught country schools. One of the best ways to learn a subject is to try 23 THE SEMI-CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION to teach it, although this is oftentimes very expensive to the children. In my opinion, these young men and women were the best raw material-and they were in­deed raw material-that any school ever had out of whom to make common school teachers. They had been brought up in the country, and I sometimes think it is the natural and constitutional right of everybody to be born in the country. They were poor-in itself a great blessing to a student-and they had not lived a soft, easy life. They · knew what it is to work, and they were not dismayed and discouraged by obstacles and difliculties. They had set­tled habits of industry, economy and persistence. They knew the value of time and opportunity and they were in dead earnest from the word go.· They had no time for the diversions of the modern student. They attended the theater very seldom, the picture shows never, and then only when they were assured that they could not afford to miss the plays. They had never heard the words ten­nis, golf, baseball, athletics, although occasionally the men did play shinny, town ball, three-cornered cat, or bull pen. A students' dancing club was unheard of, and I' doubt ·if a deck of cards was ever in the possession of a student of the Normal School during the first ten years of its history. On this subject, however, I don't care to be qualified, for it may be. that a few of us had learned the games of euchre, sledge and seven-up clandestinely .. in the barn lofts of our country homes. They were a body of poor, self-supporting students, and they could make a dollar go further than any other people I have ever known. They had sprung from the loins of hibor, they knew what it was to get up at four or five o'clock in the morning and do a half day's work before walking a mile, or two, or three, over the country roads· to the school house. At the close of the school day, they walked home, milked the cows, fed the stock, chopped the next day's · wood and attended to aU the chores of the primitive life 24 ·- ·r I I . ; ' ' THE SEMI-CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION they lived on the farms of that day. And after the ·sup­per tabl~ was clea:ed (in those days they had supper in the evemng, not dmner) they gathered around the table and, by the. light of a kerosene lamp, really studied and learned their lessons for the next day. The men had never dreamed that rich, costly silks would be made' into ten, fifteen and twenty-dollar shirts, and the women had never heard of four, six, eight or ten-dollar silk hose. The conventionalities and extravagances of modern dress were unknown to them. "They had a rustic woodland air, And they were wildly clad" but they had the stuff in them, and, strange as it may seem, they believed that the chief duty of a student is to get his lessons and perform the tasks assigned to him. At the end of ten years William A. Jones resigned from the presidency, and was succeeded by George P. Brown, who remained at the head of the school until June'30, 1885. U:nder President Brow:n's direction the school made several important advances. The courses of study were broadened and extended, larger appropriations. were secured for maintenance, fuller account was taken of and more cre.dit given for the work of the high schools which had greatly multiplied by this time, and :more was done · to popularize the school and to bring its work to the at­tention of the people of the state. Moreover, to ·a consid­erable extent the extreme and somewhat abstract terminol­ogy adopted and employed in the early days of the school was abandoned to give place to the language more current in educational literature and circles. These and other changes greatly increased the attendance and gave the work of the school a wider and more general approval. President Brown was a· man of keen educational insight, and of extended, varied and successful experience in all kinds of public school work. This intimate knowledge 25 ., THE SEMI-CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION of the schools enabled him to bring the work of the Nor­mal School into closer harmony with the schools of the state and in this way he rendered a very great service during the six years of his presidency. Now, let me touch as briefly as possible without 'alto­gether ignoring, the period from July 1, 1885, to the pres­ent. During this period Indiana has had her greatest ex­pansion and development in all lines, directions •and fields. One might almost characterize the Indiana of the last third of a century as the New Indiana, for the former things have, in part, been don~ away, and Indiana is clothed with .and dominated by a new spirit and life. · Physically, her remaining forests have been cut away, her swamps and marshes have been· drained and converted into fertile farms, her railways and interurbans have multiplied and extended until the state has become a net­work of these, interlacing and tying together as one great family her nearly three million people. Her public high­ways have been improved in a degree not realized by the younger generation of to-day. Her agricultural, mining; manufacturing and commercial interests have undergone marvelous development, and a newer, finer and broader spirit animates her people. Along with this march of physical, material improve­ment has gone a steady expansion and development of In­diana's educational system. Schools of all classes have multiplied and expanded_:colleges, teacher-training schools and departments, special, technical, industrial, professional and trade schools of all kinds adapted to the growing needs of our complex specialized industrial and commercial life. As already stated, fifty years ago, there were not to exceed ten high schools in Indiana. To-day there are more than twelve hundred such schools. New · · and enlarged courses now have place in the public school work of the state, and the normal and teacher-training schools have all been obliged to expand in every way to 26 1., ! ,. .: w· THE SEMI- CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION train teachers for the new education furnished by the pub­lic schools. !he history of the State Normal School for the past third of a century has been largely in the nature of an effort ~o keep up with and adapt itself to the growing, enlargmg demands of the schools to serve which it is main­tained. Its foundations had been securely laid and fifteen years of steady, thoughtful dealing with the problems of teacher-training with several thousand student-teachers, . representing all degrees of attainment and fitness for teaching had established well the lines of this effort. The new problem which confronted the school was to extend its courses of study, increase its teaching force, multiply and enlarge its equipment and facilities, and in every way meet these growing demands. To this task the ener­gies of the school have been devoted in no small degree during the past third of a century. The course of this development was seriously inter­rupted and hindered for about two years by a disastrous fire in April, 1888. The forenoon of April 9, 1888, wit­nessed the complete destruction by fire of its entire plant -buildings, furniture, library, laboratories-such as they were- everything- the accumulation of more ·than eighteen years. Not an article of furniture of any de­scription, not a piece of apparatus, not a book was left. All that was left was the smoking, broken walls of the building-six hundred earnest students, about thirty teachers, and the intangible but most real something that I want to call the spirit of·· the Indiana State Normal School. In the face of this overwhelming disaster this spirit remained unbroken and undismayed. And this is a good time to declare that this last-the spirit of a . school-is, after all; the abiding, enduring reality. This is not subject to fire, flood, earthquake, or any other ex­ternal contingency or disaster. This most real, potent, active spirit or energy immediately set about creating for 27 THE SEMI-CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION itself a new, more comprehensive, finer and better ex­ternal embodiment than it had before enjoyed. And .this invincible normal school spirit and reality stands here to­day in the form of real estate trebled in extent and hardly less than ten times greater in value, with six great modern buildings well adapted to the purposes for which they were intended, with library, laboratories and equipment of every nature, totalling in cost and value not less than one and one-half million dollars. What has the school accomplished for Indiana during the half century of its active existence~ No human being A could answer this question, but this much in truth can be said-the Indiana State Normal School,has stood in sea­son and out for sound, earnest; thorough, philosophical preparation and training for teaching in the public schools of Indiana, and it has, first 1:md last, sent fifty-five thousand young men and women out into these schools~ strongly and fully imbued with these ideas and doctrines of thoroughness, system and organization of school work. Probably not a city, town, hamlet, village or township in Indiana l1as failed to come under its influe'nce either through the direct teaching of its students, or by means of the general educational atmosphere ·and tone which the school :has helped to create. At this moment there are several thousand teachers in the public schools of Indiana who have received their instruction and training in the Indiana StateN ormal School. May I devote a final word to this question: To ·what does the Indiana State N~rmal School owe whatever de­gree of success it has enjoyed during the fifty years of its work~ Ideals, principles, theories and doctrines, be they ever so sound and correct, have no inherent power to organize and realize themselves in concrete activities and results. These abstractions have no dynamic power. Only as they have men and women behind .them bent ·on putting them 28 I .! n : I THE SEMI-CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION into. for~e ~nd operatio~ do they take on outward reality. An mstitutwn of learnmg founded on correct ideals an:d principles and having aims of the highest character might nevertheless, for want of energetic, aspiring, courageous, devoted men and women to carry these into effect attain only a mediocre degree of success, or even suffer disaster and failure. Almost without exception, the Indiana State Normal School throughout its fifty years' history .has been blessed with men and women of unusual ability as teachers and of singular devotion to the highest interests of the school. Since, as I have already made known, it has been my for­tune, ·and mine alone, to know the attainments and capa­bilities of all these men and women of the half century, it will not be thought amiss for me to bear this public testi­mony to their ability, fidelity and devotion. But the high character of this teaching body has not been the result of mere chance and good luck. It has come about and has been maintained by a system of ap­pointments and elections having regard only to ques­tions of fitness for and adaptation to the work to be done. No questions of political or religious belief, or other irrele­vant matters h~ve entered into the appointment or reten­tion of the faculty of the State Normal School, and when once appointed and tested, men and women have been made to feel that the tenure of position was secure. More­over, they have been given a large degree of freedom in working out the problems of and in administering their respective departments. A continuity of thought _and method and consistency of aim and effort. have been gwen to the school in these ways, which have proved of t~e highest value and which could not have been secured m .any other way. - . The school will enter upon the second half century of Its career with an honorable worthy history behind it. It can not say1 with the Apo~tles of old, "I have finished my 29 .',· 't•' THE SEMI-CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION course" for larger fields of usefulness·are yet ahead of it; but it can truthfully declare, "I have fought a good fight, I have kept the faith." That it will keep faith with the high ethical and educational ideals that have character­ized the first half century of its life we may safely believe. That its sphere of usefulness will widen with the years to come seems certain. ';rhus will it more than. ev~rmerit the confidence and support of the people of Indiana, whose highest and 'dearest interests-the education an"d training of their sons and daughters for usefulness in a high and honorable calling-it seeks to p~omote. . That the half century just end~d may prove to have laid the foundations broad enough and deep enough for an ever growing superstructure that shall .endure through the ages, ministering to the highest, most enduring needs of humanity, and brightening and blessing toilsome life is the hope and wish of my soul and the ·prayer of my heart. I 30 I • ·. ~ ; •, The· State Normal School of the Middle West By President William Wood Parsons The subject of this symposium rather assumes that the state normal schools of the Middle West have a distinc­tive character, as they have differed in origin and history, from similar institutions in other sections of the country. And I feel sure that, within certain limitations, this as­sumption is well founded. The general fact seems to be that institutions of learning derive their character, in part at least, from their physical, intellectual and social surroundings, and, as a general proposition, it is true that such institutions seek to train their youth for intelligent, helpful, useful activity in the institutional and social life they are to live. It would, therefore, s·eem reasonable that the state normai schools'of the Middle West would to some extent, differ from such institutions as they exist and are carried on in other coun­tries, and even in different parts of the United States. There is an intangible, indefinable, but none the less real, something which we may call the Spirit of the Middle '\Vest. This would perhaps elude any effort at precise defi­nition or analysis, but it exists none the less. The spirit of New England is not identical with that of the Pacific Coast. Go from New Orleans, Charleston, Nashville, or even Louisville, to Minneapolis, Omaha or Kansas City, and one feels at once the presence of a different life. With­out attempting to characterize the difference; any one who has addressed assemblages of teachers in New England, .the Middle Atlantic.states, Pennsylvania and New York, and in the far Northwest, could hardly fail to appreciate the difference of educational attitude and spirit prevail~ ing in these widely separated sections. 31 8 .': f .' . · rJ , ·.r.· ';1'·.:' • I ' ' .. 'I:. ..:!· ... , ! tl 1 '' t I ·.I, '·' THE SEMI-CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION The Middle West is a blend or union of nearly all the elements of our national life. The hardy New Englander, the Quaker and the Pennsylvania Dutch, the cavalier of the South, the Virginian, the Carolinian and the Ken­tuckian have met on common western soil and have each contributed to the political, civil, commercial and social life of the region. The peculiarities, provincialisms and idiosyncrasies of each have been submerged and lost in the compound character that has emerged. Here was an empire to subdue. Forests were to be cut away, homes to be builded, cities and towns established, railways, bridges and public highways con'structed. A highly de­veloped, complex civilized life was .to. supplant, and has within the past one hundred years taken the place of the Middle West as thi~ great region came from Nature's hand. · In this transformation it was inevitable that the people themselves should be transformed. A Western character -a Middle Western charader-was the result and out­come. These people believed in. religion and education and the church and the school house were objects of their early attention. Very early they realized that the value of the school depends primarily on the lability and effi­ciency of the teacher, and the conception of schools for the special training of teachers very soon took hold of the , popular mind. The normal schools in all these Middle Western states· had their origin in the _clear, positive recognition of the necessity for special training for the work of teaching. . These schools, like the public elementary schools for which they were designed to prepare teachers, had certain elements of originality and differentiation about them. They were not patterned closely after the normal schools of any other nation or country, and did not adopt as models for strict, close imitation the normal schools al­ready established in the United States. The rugged, in- . 32 i'r '' .' ~ '. THE SEMI- CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION dependent, vigorous character of the people themselve·s re­flected itself in the normal schools. These schools have not been conducted altogether along traditional lines and have not been bound by the conservatism and the conven­tionalities of any section or. region; nor again have they been overshadowed and dominated by college and univer­sity interests. For the most part they have been free to work out their own problems in their own clearly defined field. To some extent they have attacked and attempted to solve these problems of school teachinOo ' and manaOb 'e-ment from different angles and points of view, and in the summing up I have no doubt that each of them will be found to have made some valid contributions toward the solution of the problems of normal school education. I have the impression, though it is quite possible that this is. an error, that the Indiana State Normal School, under the direction of its first president, William A. Jones, made a more distinct and positive effort to found its work on a preconceived system of philosophy and psychology than did normal schools generally. Mr. Jones was a virile, independent thinker in the field of education. Coming from New England, he had broken with what he regarded as traditional formalism in the schools and in his reaction from this, he went to a possible extreme in the view that a rational philosophy of the world and a complete psy­chology of man must become the conscious working in­tellectual possession of every teacher. But this was a most wholesome reaction from the superficial, formal and imitative methods of school work prevalent in Indiana and elsewhere at that time. Perhaps I should be justified in the broad statement that the most distinctive charac­teristic or feature of this school, particularly in its early years, was the assumption that, by a t?orough study of .academic subjects and a careful analysis of ~ental. pro­cesses methods of instruction could be determmed With a great ' degree of scientific accuracy. An ol d say.m g cur- 33 I : i·: .~ I' , ,'I. I:, '.; 1•! ·1 I·, ·i.:' I'. ·i ;. I ', I I ·,I ,, i,' i 'I. I THE SEMI-CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION rent here many years ago was supposed to be the summa­tion of this doctrine-"the fact in the subject, the law in the mind, the method as the product." Or, stated a little more fully, the theory of this normal· school embraced four distinct but closely related doctrines as necessary to a teuche:r's preparation and training for the school room. These were: First. A thorough organic knowledge of the subject or subjects to be taught. Second. A knowledge of the human mind involving the mental processes by which knowledge of subject-matter is acquired, with the laws controlling these processes . ..: Third. A systematic, orderly method of instruction derived from this knowledge of subject-matter and of the being to be taught. Fourth. An extended period of actual practice· in teaching in a school, organized for the purpose and in which these· rationally derived methods of instruction could not only be tested, but become the habitual and regular procedure with the tea:cher. Before entering into a vocy brief consideration. of each of these four underlying ideas constituting the educa­tional doctrine of the Indiana State Normal School, let me give my general adherence to the educational platform here laid down. In general terms, tliis·is sound, compre­hensive and complete. A half century's study of these four cornerstones of the essentials of pedagogy has not changed my conviction as to their soundness and\truth, nor shaken in any way my faith in these as the basic lines of teacher-training and instruction. Whoever undertakes to teach a subject or sub3ects to others, presumably less ma­ture and intellectual than himself; or, better, whoever at­tempts to teach others most effectively with a subject or subjects of instmction must, necessarily, give earnest at­tention to the subject itself, the nature and capacities of the learners, and the method or procedure of adapting the subject to the inherent needs of those who are taught. And if a long and expensive period of experimentation is to be 34 j ,,I . l t, / ~ I • ', '• THE SEMI- CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION avoid~d, a time must be devoted to preliminary pr~ctice teachmg under the most intelligent, skillful guidance. It would be un~versally conceded, I assume, that a thorough, sy~t~matiC knowledge of any subject is the ''ery first prereqms1te to any skillful teaching of that subject, and norma~ schools have not been alone in emphasizing this fact. No mformed person, I take it, would deny that a te~cher's mental furniture, whatever this includes or does not include, must embrace a knowledge of the subject or subjects which he is required to teach. There can be no successful teaching of any subject by a person who does not have a reasonably thorough understanding of that subject. It must always be understood that nothing can be offered as a substitute for this. But a subject may be studied, and in a sense mastered, from either of at least two points of view. It may be mastered as a means or instrument of self-education and self-culture alone, or it may be pursued and considered at every stage from the point of view of one who wishes to employ it as a rrl'eans of educating others. In the first instance, the student's question would be, how can I so study the facts, prin­ciples, general truths and rules of this subject as to de­rive for myself the largest amount of useful information, the best discipline and exercise of my mental powers, and the truest and best insight into the department of knowl­edge to which the subject introduces me? In the second case the inquiry would be, how can I so study and master the' sphere ·of subject-matter presented in a given subject as to be able to wield this most effectively in leading an­other to acquire this lmowledge, power and insight? .~n other words the Indiana State Normal School has In­sisted from ~he first that there is something that may be called a teacher's knowledge of a subject of study-and that it is the duty of the Normal School to lead the stu­dent- teacher to acquire this. Again, it must be under­stood that this teacher's knowledge of a subject .is not a 35 ; , .. THE S E M I - C E NT EN N I A L CELEB R A TI 0 N substitute for a thorough understanding of the subject- · matter in itself, but it is something added to and over and above what the student requires when the object is his own self-education and culture alone. This professional or pedagogical mastery of a subject grows out of the general attitude of the student while pursuing his studies. A medical student and a prospective public school teacher could easily study the same field of subject-matter,. but each would view this from his own special angleand in­terest. Each would consider it from the point of view of the particular use to be made of' it. Questions of educa­tional value, adaptation to varying stages of mental un­folding and understanding, methods of presentation, etc., would come within the teacher's view, and would' to that extent differentiate his study of the subject from that of the general or the medical student. This systematic, thorough, organic pedagogical view and mastery of sub­jects of study was insisted upon and drilled into the stu­dent from the first by this school; and, held within rea­sonable limits, it is a valid element of teacher training. The student's attitude toward the subject he is pursuing will help to determine the. character of the know ledge he acquires. But, in my opinion, this doctrine was in the early days of this institution pushed quite beyond its .·reasonable limits, and, necessarily, resulted in a ;~ery limited, re­stricted, although intensive, and accurate scholarship. The · school identified thoroughness with exhaustiveness. A reasonably thorough working teacher's lmowledge of a subject can be acquired and should be taught without at­tempting to exhaust the subject. Moreover, no subject . stands unrelated and alone. Using the current qualifica­tion, other things being equal, though we lmow they never are equal, he will be the best teacher of arithmetic, for example, who, in addition to knowing arithmetic, has illuminated and enriched his knowledge of the subject by 36 i I i' I· l . . . : i 'i ', .. .. i ' THE SEMI- CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION the study of higher mathematical branches who can let down into the subject the light which algebra, geometry, calculus, etc., are fitted to throw oh the lower subject. ·while this thorough, organic, deeply intensive study and mastery of a limited range of subjects as carried on in the early normal schools was of the highest value in some respects, it at least leaves open the question whether a larger range of subjects-a more liberal scholarship­would not in the end contribute more largely to the teach­er's success and efficiency. Psychology has from the first been the favorite pedago­gical study in normal schools. This has been considered the gateway to all really rational, scientific method in teaching. A large element of truth is contained in this implication. The child is himself the· real subject of edu­cation. Branches of instruction are determined by his inherent needs as a human being and the institutional life he is to live among his fellows. They are simply the means, the tools, the instruments of the child's unfolding and development. Methods of instruction, principles of school management, the rules of the school-everything indeed pertaining to the school-can be traced back to the nature and needs of the being to be educated. The entire. work of the school revolves about the child and centers in his nature, needs, and destiny. Philosophically, all this is true, but it yet leaves open the. question whether it is necessary that every teacher, without regard to his sphere of work in the school room, should consc~ously possess this deep philosophy of the world and this ra­tional child psychology. Probably no other normal school in the Middle West, if indeed in the United States, laid greater stress on this aspect of professional training than did the Indiana State Normal School. Educational Psychology had a larO'e place in the curriculum and much effort was devoted to founding all method and everything valid in school 37 ~ . •' ' . ' '1) THE SEMI- CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION work on psychological grounds and philosophical prin­ciples. As an abstr.act, academic, theoretical doctrine it would not be difficult to assent to this proposition, but as a practical working scheme for training young men and women for the schoolroom, especially by short. courses, it can easily be unduly stressed. The eighteen or nineteen year old boys and girls from the high schools who now constitute the student-body in the typical normal school, have little power to enter into the deep, introspective mental processes which have been supposed to clear up and illuminate all school problems f01i the teacher. Moreover, these young people have little power, even under the best direction and guidance, to anticipate the actual problems of the school and solve them on purely theoretical grounds . . The more obvious general activities of mind with the con­ditions attending these and the general laws of such opera­tions can and should be studied, but highly speculative, philosophical and obscure facts and theories have no necessary place in the teacher's study of the subject. I rather think it yet remains for somebody to write a · psychology for teachers which shaU deal in the most sim­pie way with those mental activities, facts, products· and laws which closely relate themselves to the work .of the teacher, and leave in the background almost entirely the strictly metaphysical, philosophical aspects of the sub-ject. ·) I Notwithstanding these shortcomings, if, indeed, they were limitations, it would be safe to declare that the school rendered a great service to the educational work of the state by the emphasis it placed on this general necessary element in the training of the teacher. Rational method must be derived from two things-the matter of the subject and ·the being to be taught with the subject. There is, of course, a method, that is to say, an organization in and of the subject itself which can not be ignored in determining the· teacher's procedure. ·The 38 I' '. : i / ·.·n·· . 1 .. ~~ '· .. .i. i. I i ~ !" THE SEMI-CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION. logica.l or~e~ of dep~ndence which inheres ln the subject and gives It Its orgamc char·acter and renders it a valuable instrument of education is a very large fa·ctor in the de­termination of all questions of method. On this doctrine of method in the subject the Indiana State Normal School has always, and I think with entire correctness, placed great emphasis. A subject of study, for example, English grammar, arithmetic or geography, ·is not simply a C!haotic mass of facts, rules, general principles, etc., but all this matter classified, arranged and organized in the order of logical dependence. The subject is methodical and organic. It is an essential element of the teacher's knowledge that he become fully conscious of the necessary method and organization that inhere in the subject he is to teach. This inherent method and organiza­tion of the subject and the child's natural and neces­sary activities of mind furnish the clue to the only really int~lligent scientific method possible in tea9h­ing the subject. It has been the ·almost unanimous testi­mony of both graduates and under-graduates of this school that this close, intensive, analytic study of subject-matter, dwelling constantly on the inherent organization of the subject, has been of the highest value to them, both as means of self-education and as preparation for teaching. The normal schools of the Middle West have in very con­siderable. degree, I am quite sure, differentiated themselves from the schools of other sections of the country by the emphasis they have placed on this phase of academic study. From the first the Indiana State Normal School has maintained an extensive system of schools for observa­tion and practice under the special guidance of trained · critic teachers. At present it maintains a typical country school, the eight grades of the common public schools and a full four-year high sohool department. An element of completeness would be added if the system embraced a 39 '. :} ! i THE SEMI-CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION well ordered, efficient kindergarten. These schools are organized and maintained oii the theory that, following a thorough and careful study of subjects of instruction in their organic and methodical nature and in every way from a teacher's point of view, also· a thorough study of method, it is possible to acquire at· least a degree of skill in actual instruction under competent critic guidance be­fore the student actually takes charge of a school as a responsible teacher. It would be an ·error to hold, as has sometimes been done, that this period of practice work, however extended and well coliducted, takes the place of his own actual experience in the school of his own teach­ing. It does not; nothing can be offered as a substitute for the years of actual, everyday contact with the prob- · lems of instruction and school management in the teach­er's own school. But that this experimental period in a school room can be greatly reduced and that the young teacher can be so taught and trained in the practice schools that he will profit rapidly and greatly'by his experience in his own school, seems altogether reasonri ble. The condj­tions which obtain in the school of criticism and directive practice are substantially identical with those which he will encounter when he leaves the normal school. In the practice schools· the student-teacher has the opportunity to apply consciously the theoretical principles of methods of instruction which he has been led to acquire during his course of academic and pedagogical training, and he is led to justify his teaching and management by a reference to the principles of method and psychology involved. The theory of the training school is that, by means of a period of conscious, predetermined application of the8e spund principles, he will ultimately grow into the habitual, au­tomatic use of these in all his work as a teacher, and thus become in reality and in truth a free, a rationally free, teacher. If I were asked to compress into a few. sentences my 40 i .. ' ~ . : •, THE SEMI-CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION convictions and conclusions as to the work done by the nonnal schools of the United States, and especially of the Middle West, I think I should set up the following claims: First: These schools have had as students almost ex­clusively a poor, self-supporting cbss of young men and women who were not "sent" to school, but who voluntarily chose the nonnal schools as institutions in which to pre­pare for a definite, predetermined calling or life work. The fixed aims of these students and their earnestness and devotion have enabled the normal schools to do a grade of plain, honest, thorough, systematic work which, under different conditions, would have been impossible. Men and women who know where they are going and who have chosen the means of reaching the desired goal are not likely to divert any considerable part of their energy from the accomplishment of their object. Second: The character and aims of their students as a class, as well as the necessary nature of their work, have given to these schools a pedagogical atmosphere or spirit which of ·itself has had a high educational value for teach­ers. The schools have done their work in this atmosphere and with students having this attitude of mind. Third: The normal schools from the first have recog­nized that education is a many-sided problem worthy of the best efforts which men and women of learning, expe­rience and ability can bestow on the subject. And they have studied every phase and aspect of the problem with patience, intelligence and persistence. They have thus been able to make a substantial contribution to the body of permanent educational doctrine accepted by the world's educational thought . Fourth: The hundreds of thousands of students these . , schools ·have trained have in great numbers remained in the schools as teachers and they have given their lives to the work of education. More generally than any other classes of teachers do these persons adopt teaching as a 41 THE SEMI-CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION life work and give their life energy to the study of edu­cation and to the systematic instruction and training of the children. The normal schools have certainly done their part toward giving the world a body of professional teachers. Fifth and last, they have done much to create in the public mind the consciousness that teaching is a great, im­portant vocation to which men and women of the highest ability and the largest. culture may reasonably dedicate their lives, having little thought to the ordinary rewards of human endeavor, and findirig thei:r r.eal remuneration in the lrnowledge of permanent benefit bestowed on man­kind through their efforts and sacrifices. Institutions that . set up as their sole ends the training of ~achers for the schools in a republic, where the security of all institutions of society rests ultimately on the intelligence, the patri­otism and the morality of the people at large, deserve the approval, the encouragement and the liberal support of the state and the people. 42 J· Historical I The Indiana State Nor mal School Terre Haute HISTORICAL.-The Indiana State Normal School was created by an act of the General Assembly approved De- . cember 20, 1865. This act defined the object of the school to be the preparation of teachers for teaching in the com­mon schools of Indiana. This act provided that the in­stitution should be located at the town or city of the state that should obligate itself to give the largest amount in cash or buildings and grounds to secure the school. The city of Terre Haute. offered to give a tract of land near the heart of the city and $50,000 in cash, and agreed fur­ther to maintain forever one-half the necessary expense of keeping the. buildings and grounds in repair. This liberaJ offer was accepted and the school was located here. The Normal School opened its doors for the instruction of students on January 6, 1870, with twenty-three students pr~sent on the opening day. From this meagre enrollm~nt, the school has grown steadily. During the year 1918-1919, 1,936 different students were enrolled. Since the school was organized 54,000 different students have been in at-tendance and 3,100 have graduated. . · EQUIPMENT.-On the forenoon of April 9, 1888, the original building and its contents were almost totally de­stroyed by fire, and the library, the furniture, and the ap­paratus- the accumulation of eighteen years-were con­sumed. Terre Haute provided temporary quarters for the . 'school, andpromptly gave $50,000 in cash with which to begin the work of rebuilding. The G_eneral Assem~ly_ap­propriated $100,000 for the completiOn of the bml~mg, now known as Main Hall. With the growth of the scnool 43 1:. ,· I. I I' '· 'i l'i . I 'I: /:i I •):. r:- I, J ,;' I ' THE SEMI-CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION new buildings have been added from time to time. A large modern training school was built on Mulberry Street. This school maintains all the eight grades ·and a four years commissioned high school, and has every advantage for carrying on the work of practice teaching. ·A few years later, what is now known as North Hall was con-structed, and contained for a number of years the rapidly growing library and some of the science departments. In 1910 the school dedicated its magnificent new library on Eagle Street, which is to be the permanent home of the library now numbering over 80,000 volumes. With the growing importance of the vocational work in the schools, a large modern building was erected, thoroughly equipped throughout to carry :forward the work ·in the Industrial Arts. In 1917 the new science hall was completed, now containing the departments of Botany, Zoology, Agricul-ture, Physics, and Chemistry. In addition to these seven large buildings constructe9. directly for educational work, the school has remodeled a large, commodious residence on Eagle Street serving as a student building, the headquar-ters for all social affairs of the school. Two other small residences near the school have been refitted :for a students' cafeteria, in which good, nourishing food is furnished the students at actual cost. From the single original building the school has therefore_ grown until it now uses nine build­ings to carry on its work. In addition to these buildings the school has the full use of a rural school about four miles east of the city for practice work in the training of teachers for rural schools. · FACULTY.-The faculty, numbering ·over fifty regular members, is chosen for the express purpose of training teachers for the public schools and directs its entire energy upon this one thing alone. Twenty-two different depart- ,; ments offer every phase of work required in the public schools, including grade and high school subjects, pro-fessional courses, Industrial Arts, Domestic Economy, and 44 'I THE SEMI-CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION Agriculture. Well equipped gymnasiums for men and women and convenient athletic grounds, furnish ample opportunity for training in every phase of physical cul­ture. LmRARY.-The school offers excellent library advan­tag~ s. The library now has upwards of 80,000 volumes 'to wh1ch the students have free and easy access. The library also has practically all of the current educational maO'a- • b zmes and literary and scientific periodicals and publica-tions, TRAINING ScHooLs.-The State Normal School main­tains a complete system of training schools, including the eight grades and high school in the city, and a typical rural school in connection with the township school in the country. All these schools are in charge of skillful, pro-fessionally trained teachers.. · THE STUDENT BUILDING.-This building is situated on the south side of Eagle Street, next to the City Library. Though it was originally built to be a private residence, it has been so remodeled and renovated since the property was purchased by the school that it now serves the pur­pose of a student welfare building very well. It is the center of the social life of the student body. Here the various organizations. of the school may hold their meet­ings, such as the Y. M. C. A., Y. W. C. A., sections of the Women's League, the literary societies, and the patriotic and religious organizations. It is also a good place to hold the smaller receptions and entertainments. But probably its greatest value to the student body as a whole lies in ~he fact that the building is kept open from morning till even­in()' every day as a place to study, lounge, or visit with friends. That it may be kept orderly at all times, a ~om­petent matron has been engaged by th~ Board of Trustees · to supervise the building during .all open hours. STUDENTS' CAFETERIA.-A cafeteria has been installed at 663 Eagle Street, and it is the purpose of the school to 45 THE SEMI-CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION have this institution help in furnishing nourishing, well cooked foods to the student body at very reasonable prices. An up-to-date equipment has been installed in this build­ing, which has been thoroughly overhauled and made sani­tary in every way. The dining-room will accommodate about 150 students at one time. Three meals are served per day. 46 ' (' ~ ........................ .. ' L. :'• Eastern Division Muncie, Indiana GENERAL.NATURE.-The Eastern Division of·the Indiana State Normal School, which is located in Muncie, is con­trolled by the same Board . of Trustees and presided over by the same President as the division that is located in Terre Haute .. The two divisions constitute the Indiana State Normal School.· Requirements for entrance courses . . . ' of study offered, certificates and diplomas granted, and de-grees · conferred are identical in the two divisions. H:rsTORY.-In the winter of 1918 the B·au Brothers of Muncie, Indiana,. offered to donate to the Indiana State Normal School the school property known as the Muncie National Institute, which had recently come into their possession. This property consisted of a very commodious, handsome school building situated in the center of a beau­tiful ten-acre tract; a commodious dormitory; and a tract of about' sixty acres adapted in every way to supply the agricultural, athletic, and other .similar needs of a school. After thorough investigation and consideration, the Board of Trustees acceptedthis generous offer and established in this property a branch or division ·of the· Indiana State Normal School, which is known as the Indiana State Nor­mal School, Eastern Division. Students were first registered in the Eastern Division of the school on June 17, 1918. As many of the teachers had been transferred from the school in Terre Haute and were. therefore farriili~r with the established methods and policies, the work of the new Division was carried on from the opening day with the orderliness and dignity of the State Normal,School. Theideals, ~tandardsof work, and methods of procedure ofthe.Eastern Dl.vision ar~ so much like those of the division in Terre Haute that the student 47 4 THE SEMI-CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION who goes from one division to the other will realize that he has not gone from one school to another. The Eastern Division of the School has been developed quietly, but steadily. As equipment and supplies have been added, the enrollment has increased. The enrollment the first·term, the Summer Quarter of 1918, was 383; that of the Summer Quarter of 1919 was.536; and that of the Summer Quarter of 1920 is more than 875. Enrollment during other quarters of the year is smaller, but the in­crease in attendance has been steady. LocATION.-The school is located about one mile :from the business center of Muncie. Electric and steam rail­ways lead in all directions from Muncie through one of the richest and most populous parts of Indiana, and no other large school of collegiate rank is located in this part of the State; FAcDLTY.-The faculty consists of about twenty-five members, many of whom were transferred from the school in Terre Haute. This faculty is chosen for the express purpose of training teachers for the public schools, and it direct~ its entire energy upon this one thing. DEPARTMENTs-The departmental organization of the Eastern Division of the School is similar to that of the rerre Haute division. The various . departments offer courses of training in .all kinds of 'work required in the public schools, including work for grade teachers, for high school teachers, and for teachers and supervisors of spe-cial subjects. . ·. EQmPMENT.-The main building is a large, handaome brick structure, beautifully situated on a ten-acre wooded campus. Most of the apparatus and other laboratory equipment is new and modern, and additions are made to the equipment of laboratories when they are justified by the needs of the school. The library has been reorganized and several thousand dollars' worth of new, well selected books have been added. Other books will be purchased 48 THE SEMI-CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION" from ter~ to term. The Department o£ Agriculture ~ses for practical demonstration and experiment the large tract of good farming land owned by the school, and the Department of Home Ecqnomics uses the excellent cafe­teria of the school as a laboratory in which to prepare t~achers of institutional management. The new athletic field has been equipped with a one-fifth mile cinder track and a one hundred twenty yard straight-away. · The ball field is large and well constructed, and there are numerous tennis courts for the use of all students. TRAINING ScHooLs.-An eight-grade city school, sit­uawd two blocks from the campus, is used as a training school for students in observation and practice roaching. Four of the critic teachers in this school are employed by the State Normal School and are under its direct· super­VISIOn. The use o£ the Muncie High School has been tendered by the trustees as a training school for students preparing to do high school w.ork. One critic teacher in this schoor'is employed by the State Normal School and.is under its direct supervision. The Normal School will en­deavor to provide other opportunities for observation and practice in high school work when there is a demand. FoREST HALL.-A dormitory for women students of the school, known as Forest Hall, is owned and managed by the school. This home for women students is beautifully situated on a tract o£ ground adjoining the campus. It will accommodate about sixty students. The rooms are arranged in suites of two rooms each, and are neat, well ventilated, steam .heated, and in every respect sanitary. The students in this do~mitory are under the direct super­vision of Miss Geneva Nugent, Assistant Professor of Home Economics, who resides in the building. Women 'students who wish to engage rooms in Forest Hall should address President W. W. Parsons, Indiana State Normal School, Eastern Division, Muncie, Indi~na. . Rool\Is.-Students may secure rooms m splendid homes 49 THE SEMI-CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION convenient to the school at very reasonable rates. The Dean of Women and the Dean of Men inspect· all rooms offered for rent to students and ·approve them before they may be engaged; therefore women students should consult the Dean of Women, and men students should consult the Dean of Men before engaging rooms. It has seemed best to require women students not to engage' rooms where men are· rooming, and to require men students not to engage rooms where women are rooming. For further informa­tion, women students should address Miss Viletta E. Baker, Dean of Women, and men students should address President W. 'V. Parsons, Indiana S,tate Normal School, Eastern Division, Muncie, Indiana. BoARDING.-A large, well equipped ~afeteria is estab­lished in Forest Hall to accommodate students and teach­ers of the school. It is managed by the school for the pur­pose of giving students, at actual cost, well cooked, nour-. ishing food. The dinirig-room is large, attractive, and thoroughly sanitary. . By providing for the health and comfort of non-resident students, this cafeteria helps greatly in maintaining favorable conditions for good school work Students who choose to do so may ·get their meals at reasonable rates in the numerous student boarding houses near the campus. . . SuPERVISION OF STliDENTs.-.,.-The quiet, beautiful, health­ful location of the school and the excellent moral and Christian influences that surround the students are con­ducive to successful school work. The bean of Women keeps in close touch with each of the .women students of the school. She inspects and approves rooms that they may occupy; she visits them when they are ill; advises them when they need counsel, and protects them in all pos­sible ways. The Dean of Men has similar supervision over the men students of the school. REcOMMENDATIONS FOR PosiTIONs.:_All students now or formerly registered in the Indiana State Normal School 50' .. ,, ~mm .................. .. ~- ,/1. I' i• I. I. . (~ I .:· .' '1". THE SEMI-CENTENNIAL CELEBRAT,ION who wish to secure positions as teachers. are invited to register with the Committee on Recommendations for Positions. This committee endeavors to promote the wel­fare of the public common and high schools by· assisting school authorities to secure suitable teachers to fill vacan­cies. It furnishes information only when it is requested by school authorities, and it recommends only present or former students of the school. The services of this com­mittee are entirely free and are given cheerfully to school officials and to students and former students of the school. Communications intended for this committee should be addressed to Committee on Recommendations, Indiana State Normal School, Eastern Division, Muncie, Indiana . 51 •.. ;,1 : 1 ···:1 I" r· •. , i .: 1) \I /\ I ,, : ' The James McGregor Student­Endowment Fund James McGregor, of Terre Haute, passed away about three years ago, leaving a will which creates the "James McGregor Student Endowment Fund." This fund con­sists of $100,000, "the net income, earnings and profits of . which are to be used and applied by the Trustee for and upon the tuition, board and support of worthy young men and women who shall ·themselves be without sufficient means and who shall desire to acquire such education and training as may be furnished by permanently established non-religious, non-sectarian educational· institutions lo­cated and maintained in Vigo County, Indiana, wherein and whereat are taught the various branches of learning of a. higher grade than those taught in the public common schools." The proceeds· of this fund will be divided equally be­tween Rose Polytechnic Institute and the Indiana !State Normal -School at Terre Haute. ~tis estimated. that the fund will yield annually about $2~500 to each of these in­stitutions. It :is probable that the State Normal School will establish two or three grades of scholarships for the classes of students named in the will and .that these will be available in the very near future. Applicants for these scholarships must be graduates of high schools and must · present reco~mendations from high school principals or superintendents certifying to their graduation, their abil­ity and promise and that they are unable to meet the cus­tomary expenses of a college education. Further announcement regarding the eligibility of ap­plicants will be made Jater. 52't- ·: 1' , , .. i .. :· The Student Loa11 Fund For a long time it has been the custom of the graduating class of the Indiana State Normal School to make some gift to the school on graduation which might also be a memorial of the class. The Class of 1907 conceived the idea of leaving the cost of such gift in money to establish a fund which should be known as the Student Building Fund, to which all succeeding classes might contribute until such fmid together with money donated by other almnni and friends of the school should amount to enough to build a Student Building. Accordingly, the class of '07 left in the custody of the president of the school. $329 for this purpose. · The class of 1908 proposed to improve somewhat on this plan. By class action, it directed that the money in the Student Building Fund, until such fund should be suffi­ciently large to construct a Student· Building, should be used as a loan fund to help worthy students during their senior year. This class added $442.43 to the fund and adopted a constitution, which provides that the Student Loan Fund shall be under the management and control of the Alumni Association. The fund is in charge of a trustee, who is elected by the Association every three years. . Assisting the trustee are two members of. the Fac­ulty elected annually, one by the Alumni Association and one by the Faculty of the school. These two members of the Faculty . together with the trustee constitute the Loan Committee. It is the duty of -this Loan Committee to pass upon the applications of all students for loans from the fund. Any worthy student of the school may, during his senior year, borrow from this fund on his personal note, without security, at six percent interest, any amount not to exceed $100.00. Since 1908 every class except one has contributed to the 53 THE SEMI-CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION fund until at the close of the year, June 10, 1919, the money so contributed amounted to $33,612.24. During this eleven years, the trustee has loaned $15,535.00 and has as­sisted 173 different students, some of whom have borrowed from the fund more than once. . Professor Howard Sandison was elected a member of the Loan Committee in 1908 by the Alumni Association and was re-elected each year until he severed his relations with the Normal School. Since that time, Miss Ivah Rhyan, head of the Department of Domestic Economy, has been elected to the place from year to year. Professor F. S. Bogardus, head of the Department of History, has been the faculty representative on the Loan Committee since the establishment of the fund, and Professor John B. Wisely, head of the Department of English, has been from the beginning trustee, having been re-elected to the position every three years by the Alumni Association. --\·' Loans from this fund are looked upon by the students who receive them as honor debts, and although students are required to give no security of any kind, not a penny of the fund has been lost since it was founded. One fine young man who had borrowed one hundred dollars from the fund died of typhoid 'fever only a short time before his note fell due, leaving ilo property whatever which could be used in paying his debt. His brother, who was a.Jso a student in the school, paid the debt, principal and interest. It is the hope of those who are interested in the Student Loan Fund that this high sense of honor among the stu­dents with regard to this, one of their o~n institutions in the school, may ever persist. 54 The Indiana State Normal and the World War The Indiana State Normal has a record in the W o~ld War of which the State may well be proud. Immediately after the United States declared war the Board of Trus­tees adopted a resolution placing the entire resources ~f the school at the disposal of the government. Throughout the struggle the institution left nothing undone which it could do to further the cause for which the country was fighting. FORMER STUDENTS AND THE WAR. Over eight hundred former students of the Indiana State Normal were in the military service. At all times the school sought to keep in touch with these boys and to give them all the encouragement possible. Nineteen of these former students died in the service. THE YOUNG WOl\1EN STUDENTS. The young women students of the school. were equally · anxious to do their part. Ten days after the War began, the women organized a Red Cross unit. The membership of the unit reached eight hundred and twenty-six. Very effective work was done by the unit in making material for the Red Cross. i In the winter of 1918 a Patriotic League was organized among the youngwomen of the school for the purpose ?f promoting a more patriotic spirit. The membership reached nearly three.hundred and fifty. THE RED CROSS. Aside from the work of the Red Cross unit mentioned above, the students and faculty contributed liberally to 55 i i I: '! ' r'':' ,I .. ,', . THE SEMI-CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION the various relief funds. The contribution to the war re­lief fund raised in November 1917 amounted to over two thousand dollars. By the end of the year 1918 every stu­dent and employee of the school had become a member of the Red Cross. THE FRENCH WAR· ORPHANS. Especially generous was the response of the State Nor­mal to the appeal for aid for the French war orphans. The student body and faculty were supporting· fifty of these orphans at the close of the War. 1. The contributions to this cause have amounted to over three thousand dollars. The school is still contributing to the support of a number of these little orphans. ! THE STUDENTS ARl\IY TRAINING CORPS. S. A. T. C. In the autumn of 1918 a unit of the Students ·Army Training Corps was organized in the school. About one hundred and fifty young men were enrolled in the unit. Barracks were fitted up on the fourth floor of the main building. The school authorities co-operated with the military authorities in every W!LY they could until the signing of the armistice led to the demobilization of the unit. THE FACULTY AND THE WAR. Four regular members of the faculty entered the mili­tary service. Twenty-seven members of the faculty were "Four minute men." About one-half of the speakers for the Four Minute Men's Organization in the city were fur­nished by the school. One member of the faculty did pub­lic speaking and organization work for the State Council of Defense from the summer of 1917 to the spring of 1918 and was district director of the War Issues Course in col­leges, universities and technical schools in the Central De- 56 , ... I 'i I THE SEMI-CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION· purtment which included thirteen states from July to De­cember 1918. CONCLUSION. The Indiana Stat~ Normal has complewd a hal£ cen­tury of its career. It has no brighter page in all its his­tory than the one which concerns its record in the World War. ' '. ,. I .·, ·: : .,~.~: ''.·.:. i i ' 1 ... Iii '' I 'I· ' ' THE SEMI-CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION 58 it o 11. o f 1!} o n ·o r Andrew, Robert, Clay City, Indiana Beall, Clarence R~ , Versailles, Indiana Bennett, Robert, West T~rre Haute, Ind . . Bultman, Forrest, Batesville, Indiana ' Cox, Byron, Darlington, Indiana Davis, Ben H., Fortville, Indiana Duck, Paul 1., Sanford, Indiana Flick, John 1., Holton, Indiana Hubbard, William Thomas, English, Indiana Huck, Herbert, Wadesville, Indiana McAdams, D. B., Forest, Indiana McClanahan, Guy, Farmersburg, Indiana Mann, Leroy Passwater, Chas. B., Noblesville, Indiana Patterson, Leonard, Loogootee, . Indiana Pound, Floyd, Farmersburg, Indiana Schopmeyer, A. C., Poland, Indiana Shelton, Ray, Rochester, Indiana . ,, Ql:berisbing tuitb ~nburing ~ratitube tbe ~atriotic jlebotion of ~er ~anp ~ons anb maugbters ~be 3Jnbiana ~tate Jllormal ~cbool ~kes lQribe in 119ibing 1§tlow tbe JUst of §!most !&ne \!rbou~anb. ~tubent~ 'mtbo ~ntereb tbe ;ilflilitarp ~erbice of ftje Wniteb ~tates in tbe ~reat War for tbe jlldense of jiemocracp: Allyn, Wm. P., Ashby, Paul Warren, Mt; Vernon, Indiana Acton, Indiana Austin, Ralph, Ashby, Joyce A., Terre Haute, Indiana Acton, Indiana Atchley, Herbert E., Arvin, Lewis Claude, Sanbo,rn, Indiana Loogootee, Indiana Avery, Joseph, Arvin, Thos. E., Shelbyville, Indiana Loogootee, Indiana Austin, Cecil, Armstrong, Fred 0., Coalmont, Indiana Huntington, Incliana · Ashworth, Ralph A., Terre Haute, Indiana Arensman, Wm. F., Huntingburg, Indiana Asher, Paul, Gosport, Indiana Archibald, Paui; Terre Haute, Indiana Applegate,'ilfarion, Asher, ·Floyd, Brazil, Indiana Gosport, Indiana '59 '' THE SEMI CENTENNIAL CELEBRATI.ON Andrews, Glen, Clay City, Indiana Andrews, Robert,- Clay City, Indiana Anderson, Ralph Irwin, Bicknell, Indiana Anderson, Ralph, Adams, Ira G., Monroe City, Indiana Adams, Glenwood, Huntington, Indiana Abbott, Harry E., Paragon, Indiana Ascher, Albert, Algt_· ers, Indiana B aeon, Fre d , Anderson, Harley, Seymour, Indiana Tuosa, Indiana Bird, Inman, Anderson, Earl, Bicknell, Indiana AUsman, .Toe, Carli!- lc, Indiana Allison, Harry W., Mauckport, Indiana Allen, L. A., Bruceville, Indiana Allen, Fred, Cloverdale, Indiana All, Carrell R., Terre Haut-e, Indiana Alexander, Wm. P., Salem, Indiana Alexander, Clarence, Frankton, Indiana Albright, .T ohn, Colfax. Indiana Albright, .Tames, Plainville, Indiana Albion, Christa, Shelby,•ille, Indiana Addison, Paul F., Greenfield, Indiana Adams, Richard .T., Roclrrille, Indiana 60 Depauw, Indiana Bixlei-, Baxter, Haubstadt, Indiana Blackman, Clifford, Marion, Indiana Bliss, Atwood, New Amsterdam, Indiana Blunk, Raymond, Hall, Indiana Boggerly, Clifford, Grass Creek, Indiana Bollhoefer, .John S., Van Buren, Indiana Boots, Edwin B., West Terre Haute, Indiana Boston, .T esse 1\f., Lewis, Indiana Bouldeux, Clifford, Franceville, Indiana Boultinghouse, Ray, Wheatland, Indiana Bowman, Noah, Paragon, Indiana Bowers, Berna T., Terre Haute, Indiana, Bowers, Don., Terre Haute, Indiana THE SEMI-CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION Boyle, Harry H., Riley, Indiana Brandenburg, Ralph L., Clay City, Indiana Breitwieser, T. J., Muncie, Indiana Brown, George, Almo, Indiana Brown, Curtis F., Farmersburg, Indiana Brumbaugh, Lloyd, Huntington, Indiana Bridges, Charles Athal, Brunegraff, Herman Roachdale, Indiana Poneto, Indiana Bridges, George, Bruner, Claude E., Huron, Indiana Mulberry Grove, Ill. Bridges, Lowell, Bryant., Ward, Huron, Indiana Williams, Indiana Bright, Ira J., Buckles, Crofford H., Plainville, Indiana Martinsville, Indiana Brier, L. F., Buckner, Edward, Lafayette, Indiana West Union, Ill. Bright, Wm. H., Burke, Maurice H., Plainville, Indiana Terre Haute, Indiana Briley, Fuller, Burke, Jay M., Lewis, Indiana Converse, Indiana Brill, Harry R, Saline City, Indiana Britt m, Winston, Terre. Haute, Indiana Brinton, Ewing A., Bowling Green, Indiana Brown, Clarence S., Loogootee, Indiana Broadstreet, Virlyn, Bloomington, Indiana Brown, Raymond T., Terre Haute, Indiana Brown, Parke T., Tangier, Indiana 'Brown, Luther, Salem, Indiana Brown, Harry, Paragon, Indiana Bultman, Forrest Clyde, Batesville, Indiana Burton, Chas. E., Hazleton, Indiana Busing, Eli C., Haubstadt, Indiana Byrne, Amos P., Terre Haute, Indiana. Byrne, Basil, Georgetown, Indiana Barr, Jas. Hobart, Knox, Indiana Bartley, Robert, Dayton, Indiana Bass, Wm. L., Stendal, Indiana Batteiger, John F., Mt. Vernon, Indiana 61 '··'' '·'', ,I: :I; ! ·I ) \ ,:.\ 1:,, THE SEMI- CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION Bayh, Birch, Patricksburg, Indiana Bayles, Robt., Terre Haute, Indiana Beadles, Wm .. M., Stendal, Indiana Beall, Clarence, Versailles, Indiana Beasley, Vertis E., Elnora, Indiana Bell, Bruce, Chambers, Will L., Leavenworth, Kansas Champers, Burord A., New Harmony, Indiana Champion, Paul V., Crawfordsville, Indiana Charman, Howard R., Terre Haute, Indiana Chestnut, Leamon, Odon, Indiana Childress, Harvey E., Flora, Indiana 1. Freedom, Indiana Bell, vVm. Howard, Clark, Caspar, Terre Haute, Indiana Francesville, Indiana Benham, Morton, Clay City, Indiana Bennett, Robert U., -West Terre Haute, Indiana Biggins, Wm., Diamond, Indiana Binning, Russell S., ·Terre Haute, Indiana Burke, Jay, · Converse, Indiana Byrne, Cadet Herman, Georgetown, Indiana Caldwell, Curtis, Windfall, Indiana Campbell, Ernest C., Bridgeton, Indiana Campbell, Wayne, Elnora, Indiana Carpenter, Seth, Akron, Indiana Carter, D. H., Plainville, Indiana Carter, Dayton P., Quincy, Indiana 62 Clark, Ray, Plainville, Indiana Clauser, William, Owasco, Indiana Clement, Urban L., North Vernon, Indiana Clingan, Orville A., Danville, Ill. Clodfelter; Glen, Greencastle, Indiana ,.(Clogston, Evan Bernard, Terre Haute, Indiana Coffin, Dwight J., Carthage, Indiana Coffin, 'Van·en M.,. Cayuga, Indiana Colbert, A. Russell, Washington, Ind. Colvin, Henry H., Union, Indian;t Conover, James, Terre Haute, Indiana Cooprider, Joseph E., ·Jasonville, Indiana ' I ,' I '• '• 1, I l~ I THE SEMI CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION Corn, DeWitt, Cunningham, Clyde, Augusta, Indiana Mecca, Indiana Cornell, Clarence A., Terre Haute, Indiana Couts, Emery, Oakland City, Indiana Cunni:ngham, Ray M., Loogootee, Indiana Curley, Frank E., West Terre Haute, Indiana Courtney, Clarence, Curtis, Ernest, Thorntown, Indiana Eminence, Indiana Cox, Byron, Curtis, Glenn, Darlington, Indiana Hall, IndiAna Cox, Elmer, Dages, Orner Francis, Elwood, Indiana Loogootee, Indiana Cox, Lawrence R., Davies, Ellis, Charlottesville, Indiana Brazil, Indiana Cox, Raymond, Davies, Rhaslyn L., New Harmony, Indiana Brazil, Indiana Cox, Walter, Daugherty, Virgil F., Huntingburg, Indiana Decker, Indiana Crapo, Ge01:ge S., Terre Haute, Indiana Davis, Charles L., Brookville, !~diana Cree, Oscar L., Davis, Ben. H., Walton, Indiana Fortville, Indiana. Crim, Casper R.-, Davis, Clarence E., . Hartsville, Indiana Shelburn, Indiana Crist, Albert, Terre Haute, Indiana Davis, Wm. R., Cass, Indiana Cromwell, Eskin E., Center Point, Indiana Davis, Wm. R., Sullivan, Indiana. Cromwell, Geo., Davis, Ward B., Fortville, Indiana Ashboro, Indiana Cromwell, Hobart, Ashboro, Indiana. Deal, .T. A., Odon, Indiana Cromwell, Philip R., Ashboro, Indiana DeBaun, Harold, Terre Haute, Indiana Cross, Howard, Winslow, Indiana. Densford, John A., Austin, Indiana Cross, Wm. W., Pontiac, Ill. Deppe, Ed. K., Oaktown, Indiana. 63 5 THE SEMI- CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION DevVitt, Alexander, Mt. Vernon, Indiana Dickey, Joseph S., Diggs, Elder W., Madisonville, Ky. Dillard, Arthur L., Newton, Indiana Dillard, Wm. A., Newton, Indiana Dinger, George, New Harmony, Indiana Dobbyn, Fred, Washington, Indiana Donaghy, Fred, Ossian, Indiana Donham, Kilbourne, Riley, Indiana Donovan, Paul, West Terre Haute, Indiana Dooley, Clyde, Temple, Indiana Dougherty,- J. Clinton, Washington, Indiana Douglas, Richard H., 1 Terre Haute, Indiana Dowe, Wm. A., Martinsville, Indiana Dowell, Emil H., Prairie Creek, Indiana Downing, Dallas, Brazil, Indiana Drake, Lafay. E., Terre Haute, Indiana Duck, Paul I., Sandford, Indiana Dudley, Marion S., Sullivan, Indiana 64 Duggins, J. Hubert, Youngs Creek, Indiana Durrett, John, Indianapolis, Indiana Dye, Oscar, Lyons, Indiana Ewing, Elbert, Leavenworth, Indiana Eaton, Merrill T., Burns City, Indiana Ebbi~ghous, Homer S., North Manchester, Indiana Eckerly, Geo., Amboy, Indiana Edwards, Ralph B., Greenfield, Indiana Edwards; Ray, St. Paul, Indiana Elleman, Clifl'ord, Russiaville, Indiana Elliott, Merril, Georgetown, Indiana Ellis, Bert, Jasonville, Indiana Elliso11:, H. R., Heltonville, Indiana Ellwanger, Walter, Laneville, Indiana Englehart, Ira, Brazil, Indiana Englehart, Otto T., Brazil, ·Indiana Evanas, Howard R., Brazil, Indiana Evans, Loraine M., Brazil, Indiana ~------.......... I .. · '',' t I THE SEMI- CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION Fagin, James G., Riley, Indiana Farber, John, Ferguson, Eugene, Zionsville, Indiana Ferguson, Fred G., Etna, Indiana Fields, Lester, Lyons, Indiana Figg, Benj. F., Terre Haute, Indiana Fisher, Byron, Terre Haute, Indiana Fisher, Laban J., Elnora, Indiana Fisher,. Lloyd V., Elnora, Indiana Fisher, Sherman, Lapel, Indiana Fleming, James L., Sullivan, Indiana Frakes, Orville E., Prairieton, Indiana Francin, John H., Apalona, Indiana Frederick, Clifford v., Union, ,Indiana French, Claude, Cory, Indiana French, Virgil, Riley, Indiana Frushour, Wm., Urbana, Indiana Fultz, Harry T., Salem, Indiana Funcannon, Walter L., Terre Haute, Indiana Fuson, Wm. M., Farmersburg, Indiana Garrett, Elmo Leslie, Rosedale, !~diana Garr!'t, Paul, Flick, John L., Rosedale, Indiana Holton, Indiana Ga~rP.tt, Rollie V., Flint, Roy, Burns City, Indiana Plainville, Indiana Geis, Franklin A., 'Forster, Harry, Riley, Indiana Fossler, Geo. M., Laurel, Indiana Foster, James A., Lyons, Indiana Fowler, Chas. B., Bicknell, Indiana Fox, Lee, Bicknell, India,na Fox, Raymond, Holton, Indiana Brookville, Indiana Gettelfinger, Clement, Ramsey, Indiana Gibson, Edison, · Branchville, Indiana Gilmore, James E., Monroe City, Indiana Gleeson, Joseph E., Leopold, Indiana Goshorn, Robt. R. Graham, Frank, Grass Creek, Indiana 65 ~ ' " 1:· ,. II, ':1·.·'; ;l : .. THE SEMI- CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION ·Gray, Arthur Dillman Charlottesville, Indiana Haney, Harold, Brazil, Indiana Gray, Chas. F., Greenfield, Indiana Haney, Oscar, Green, Glenn, Brazil, Indiana Hannah, Carlt~n J., Riley, Indiana Coal City, Indiana Gregory, Claude C., Hanner, Dewey L., Sanborn, Indiana Kurtz, Indiana Grove, Frank, Hanshoe, Allen, Scircleville, Indiana Griffin, Indiana Griffith, Columbus, Greenfiield, Indiana Griffith, Elbert, Greenfield, Indiana Grigsby, Carl R., Terre Haute, Indiana Grim, Harold, Coal City, Indiana Grose, Wm., Riley, Indiana Gwinn, Paul, Terre Haute, Indiana Gunn, Virgil, New Albany, Indiana Gunn, Chester, Hanson, Chas. M., Washington, Indiana Harbaugh, Harry W., Clay City, Indiana Harbaugh, 'Carl M., Clay City, Indiana Harbin, Don, Linton, Indiana Harbin, Merle D., Pleasantville, Indiana Hardesty, Roy E., Carbon,· indiana Hargis, Bryan, Bicknell, Indiana New Albany, Indiana ·Harkness, Robt., Hahn, George W., Huntington, Indiana Haig, Michel, Terre Haute, Indiana Halberstadt, John, Farmersburg, Indiana Halberstadt, Loring C., Farmersburg, Indiana Halin, Geo. Hall, Willard A. Hall, Lunsford, Trafalgar, Indiana 66 Terre Haute, Indiana Harmon, Wilbur, Odon, Indiana Harney, Hugh F., Terre Haute, Indiana Harris, Paul E. Harris, Paul R., Terre Haute, Indiana Harris, Ralph W., Cannelburg, Indiana Harris, Simon E., Hutingburg, Indiana ! ! r. ' '. ~ ...................... .. ! i,' T_H_E_ _s E_M_r_ _c_ E_N_T_E_N_N_I_A_L __:C-=E L E B R A, T I O N Harrison, Cecil, Monticello, Indiana Harrison, Ray, Monticello, Indiana Hart, Frank M., Terre Haute, Indiana Harter, Raymond C., Nappanee, Indiana Hauck, Raymond R., Terre Haute, Indiana Hawkins, Justave A., West Terre Haute, Indiana Hayden, Charles S., Tobinsport, Indiana Hayes, J. L., West Terre Haute, Indiana Hays, Thos. A., Burns City, Indiana Hazzard, P~ince A., Scottsburg, Indiana Heidorn, Leo, .Stendal, Indiana Rein, Charles, Terre Haute, Indiana Heiney, Fred, Andrews, Indiana Heithecker, Albert, Plainville, Indiana Helderman, Leonard, Vincenness, Indiana . Hemmer, Edwin J., Somerville, Indiana Henderson, John, Indianapolis, Indiana Hendricks, Hugo, Reelsville, Indiana Hensley, H. F., Gosport, Indiana Henson, N. B., West Baden, Indiana Herman, Harry R., Washington, Indiana Herrmann, Irvin A., Evansville, Indiana Hiberly, John C., Santa Cruz, California Hickman, 0, G., Summitville, Indiana Hill, Harry L., Rockville, Indiana Hill, Will;trd Hinshaw, Wm. C., Indian Springs, Indiana Hirth, Albert S., Linton, Indiana Hisey, Curtis D., Mauckport, !~diana Hoagland, Jerry, Warsaw, Indiana Hochstetler, Tipton, Coal City, Indiana Hochstetler, W. G., Coal ·City, Indiana Hoffman, Clarence A., Laurel, Indiana Hoffman, Robt. C., Greencastle, Indiana Hoffman, Clifford W., Laurel, Indiana Hollingsworth, Marion W., Terre Haute, Indiana Hoover, Lawrence Hostetler, Elsworth P., Shelburn, Indiana Houck, Glenn, Kennard, Indi"ana 67 i '• . ' ' '' i 'i ;, THE SEMI- CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION Housel, W'ard, Hyman, Hugh, Corydon, Indiana Galveston, Indiana Howell, Verner Karl, Hyman, Lewis, Terre Haute, Indiana Galveston, Indiana Howick, Harry, Imel, Edward S., Salina, Ohio Petersburg, Indiana Hubbard, Disco, Irons, Ralph, Jasonville, Indiana Alma, Indiana Hubbard, William Thomas, English, Indiana Huber, Godfrey, Harrison, Ohio Huck, Herbert, Wadesville, Indiana Huff, Clay G., Cory, Indiana Hufnagel, Artus, Holland, Indiana Hughey, Luther R., Washington, Indiana Hunt, Arnold D., Greenfield, Indiana Hunt, Ernest Okley, Prairie Creek, Indiana Hunt, Edgar, Pimento, Indiana Hunt, Jesse M: .. Farmersburg, Indiana Hunt, Lawrence, Sulphur Springs, Indiana Hunt, Mahlon C., Noblesville, Indiana Hunt, llfarcus, Terre Haute, Indiana Hurst, Jno. R., West Terre Haute, Indiana Hyde, Carl, Brazil, Indiana 68 Irwin, 'Vm., West Point, Indiana Jamison, Otis G., " Scotland, Indiana Jamison, Van, Newberry, Indiana Jared, Raymond, Terre Haute, Indiana Jeffers, Fred, Coalmont, Indiana Jenkins, Cobert Jessup, Morris K., Rockville, Indiana Jewell, Roy, Shelburn, Indiana Jinks, Clifford, Laurel, Indiana Johns.: n, Harold, M:t. Vernon, Indiana Johnson, Paul F., Prairie Creek, Indiana Johnson, R. A., Saratoga, Indiana Jones, Harry A., Scottsburg, Indiana Jones, Herman A., Scottsburg, Indiana Jones, Orville P., Seelyville, Indiana Jones, Edgar Leroy, Akron, Indiana ~----~ .......... . I THE SEMI- CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION Jones, Roy, Washington, Indiana Jordan, Garrett L., Bippus, Indiana Jordan, Willard, Crete, Indiana Kamrn, Geo. J., Clinton, Indiana Kardokus, David, Bicknell, Indiana Kinman, Prentice L. Kirk, Harry F., Huron, Indiana Kirk, Richard G., Shelburn, Indiana Kirkham, Julius, Elizabeth, Indiana Klingaman, John, Syracuse, Indiana Kautz, Raymond, Knaub, Norman K., Gary, Indiana Patoka, Indiana Keifner, John J., Loogootee, Indiana Keller, Ovid W., Lyons, Indiana Kelley, Edwin W., Terre Haute, Indiana Kelly, Frank, Knauth, Henry, Terre Haute, Indiana Knowling, Chas. Knox, Gerald, Converse, Indiana Knox, Prentice, Riley, Indiana Kelly, George, Salem, Indiana Kohlmeyer, Henry F., / Francisco, Indiana Westport, Indiana Kelley, Harold, Terre Haute, Indiana Kennett, D. Herman, Milroy, Indiana Kent, Edward E., Clay City, Indiana Kerr, Chas. I., Winslow, Indiana Kerr, George; Bridgeton, Indiana Kerr, Paul S. Ketcham, Daniel W; Kidd, Linneaus S., Brazil, Indiana Kilmer, Grover, Clay City, Indiana Kahre, Raymond J., Edwardsport, Indiana LaFollette, Ancil Summers, Ladoga, Indiana LaFollette, Robt. Lahr, Herbert G., Bippus, Indiana Lapping, Edward, Salem, Indiana Larr, George C., Jasonville, .Indiana Lash, Willard P., Farmersburg, Indiana Laub, Carl H., Terre Haute, Indiana Laughlin, Lester, Robinson, Indiana 69 1., I :! ! I, 'I I I I THE SEMI- CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION Lee, Allen H., Lord, Jesse L., Rome, Indiana Sullivan, Indiana Leech, Bert, Monroe City, Indiana Lemen, Walter , Bicknell, Indiana Letsinger, Arthur, Jasonville, Indiana Leminger, Wm., Riley, Indiana Lewis, Robt. W., Markleville, Indiana Liechty, Hershel, Clay City, Indiana Lingle, David, Oaklandon, Indiana Linville, Ralph, Clarksburg~ Indiana Little, J. Hubert, North Manchester, Indiana Livingstone, Courtney, Greencastle, Indiana Lloyd, Clarence L., Cayuga, Indiana Lloyd, J no. R., Terre Haute, Indiana Lockwood, Luther, Laurel, Indiana Lockwood, Ray, Pittsburg, Penn. Laughlin, Frank, Robinson, Indiana Lollar, Horace, Sara toga, Indiana Long, Lewis 0., Bowling Gree~, Indiana Long, F. D., Pimento, Indiana 70 Loser, Paul, Terre Haute, Indiana Lowery, Lester, Tunnelton, Indiana Lawnsdale, Robt. P., Union, Indiana Lundergan, Joseph M., Montgomery, Indiana Lostetter, Paul R., Taylorsville, Indiana Lucas, Augustus, Mackey, Earl, , Rockport, Indiana Maehling, J no. J., Terre Haute, Indiana Mahoney, Jerry J., Terre Haute, Indiana Mandeville, Merten J., Terre Haute, Indiana Manhart, C. D., Terre Haute, Indiana Mann, LeRoy Terre Haute, Indiana Marchand, Austin F., Haubstadt, Indiana Marshall, Claude R., Rochester, Indiana Marshall, Robert C. Martin, Fonzo, Shelburn, Indiana Martin, Harold A., Shelburn, Indiana Martin, Jake R., · Greencastle, Indiana Martin, Robt. A., Attica, Indiana •.•• ,.: i ·~· -------- 1 THE SEMI- CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION ::lluxwell, Roy E., St. Joe, Indiana McQueeney, Albert R., Greenfield, Indiana McAdams, D. B., McShanog, Lester,, Forest, Indiana · Cayuga, Indiana :McBrayer, Thos. G., Terre Haute, Indiana McBride, Friel, Freedom, Indiana McCammon, Eldo, Westport, Indiana McCauley, John N., Loogootee, Indiana McClanahan, Guy S., Farmersburg, Indiana ~fcCiarren, Plato, Worthington, Indiana McClellan, Everett, Salem, Indiana McConnell, Thos., 'otterbein, Indiana McCord, Floyd, Oaktown, Indiana McCoskey, Laurel G., Farmersburg, Indiana McCracken, Howard C., Monrovia, Indiana McCrocklin, Horace, Riley, Indiana McDonald, Irl, Hobbieville, Indiana McKigg, Robbie, Springville, Indiana M:clCinney, Joseph, Scircleville, 'Indiana .McPheeters, Wm., . Terre Haute, Indmna McPherren, Richard, . West Terre Haute, Indmna McWilliams, Ralph, Plainville, IIidiana Medlock, Clarence A., Borden, Indiana Mehringer, Walter R., Jasper, Indiana :i\felton, Chas. E. Melton, 'Monroe Melton, Presley Mendenhall, Thos., Young America, Indiana Merrill, Harold W., Arcadia, Indiana Merrill, Raymond Miller, Cana R., Martinsville, Indiana Miller, Carl, Terre Haute, Indiana Miller, Chas., Plainville, Indiana Miller, Earl, Cory, Indiana Miller, Harlan H., Cory, Indiana Miller, Lemuel C., Sullivan, Indiana Miller, Paul B. Miller, Raymond B., Terre Haute, Indiana Miller, Wayne L., Brazil, Indiana Miller, Wayne, East Chicago, Ill. 71 THE SEMI- CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION Miller, W. F., Huntingburg, Indiana Milnor, Wilbur, Rome City, Indiana Mitchell, Jno. D., Cayuga, Indiana Mitchell, Lotus Jno. Dugger, Indiana Moore, Albert L., Center Point, Indiana Moore, I.eonard F., Ligonier, Indiana Moman, Jesse P ., Princeton, Indiana Montgomery, Roy, Bedford, Indiana Morehart, Floyd M., Terre Haute, Indiana Moren, Rollie, Plainville, Indiana Morphet, Edgar L., Grass Creek, Indiana Morris, De:l...'"ter, Salem, Indiana Moye, Erma! L., Stewartsville, Indiana Mullins, Virgil, Summitville, Indiana Murphy, Maurice. Murray, Henry H., Mt. Vernon, Indiana Musselman, Paul, Camden, Indiana Myers, J. P., Wheatland, Indiana Myers, Oscar, Cannelton, Indiana 72 Myers, Owen, Battle Ground, Indiana Myers, Roscoe T., Plainville, Indiana Nace, Edgar, Monticello, Indiana Nees, Oliver R., Cory, Indiana Neill, Walter, West Terre Haute, Indiana Newby, Loren H., Fredericksburg, Indiana Newton, Wayne, Terre Haute, Indiana Nice, J. Elbert, Star City, Indiana Noblitt, Clarence E., Eckerty, Indiana Noblitt, Dewey I., Fargo, Indiana Noblitt, Ivan E., Eckerty, Indiana Nolan, Peter, Loogootee, Indiana Norton, Fred, Stewartsville, Indiana Nowling, J. Frank, Mecca, Indiana O'Dell, Harry, Farmersburg, Indiana Overmeyer, Perry, Monterey, Indiana Overpeck, Geo. R., Rockville, Indiana Offutt, R. Keith, Terre Haute, Indiana Owens, Myrick, West Terre Haute, Indiana THE SEMI- CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION Osborne, John Orth, Albert A., Terre Haute, Indiana Orman, John W., Coal City, Indiana O'Connell, Wm. J., Terre Haute, Indiana O'Brien, Eugene, Plainville, Indiana Oberholtzer, Sherman B., Bowling Green, Indiana Paddock, Frank Pickhardt, Evan, Huntingburg, Indiana Porter, Richard L., Terre Haute, Indiana Pike, Paul, Rockville, Indiana Brooks, Pinnick, · Petersburg, Indiana Plummer, Dallas 0., Michigantown, Indiana Pope, Clarence A., English, Indiana Pope, Felix H., English, Indiana Pickett, Hale, Holton, Indiana Padgett, Raleigh H., Terre Haute, Indiana Pancake, Lee, Clifford, Indiana Parker, Hurshal E.,. . Pimento, Indiana Passwater, Chas. B., Noblesville, Indiana Pate, Carl R., Loogootee, Indiana Patten, Elmer, Stilesville, Indiana Patterson, Leonard, Loogootee, Indiana Payton, Frazier J., Terre Haute, Indiana Payne, Melvy, Brazil, Indiana Pen, George R., Brazil, Indiana Fell, Marshall, Carbon, Indiana Pennington, Ben Frank, Edwardsport, Indiana Perchman, Suvare, Mt. Vernon, Indiana Perry, Merl V., Selma, Indiana Pettiford, Irvin S., Terre Haute, Indiana Phillips, Harry A., Cory, Indiana Phillips, Luke, Gosport, Indiana Pribble, Wm. E., Cayuga, Indiana Powers, Geo. Powell, Horace, Pound, Floyd, Riley, Indiana Farmersburg, Indiana Pottenger, Thurl, Claypool, Indiana Porter, J. P. Pittman, Claude, Shelburn; Indiana Ragsdale, Edward, Columbus, Indiana 73 .~.: I.\ ,,. ,,}; I, I, '' '.f)' 1' . . '1 :·.·i 1 .,,,, ,,,'.: THE SEMI- CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION Rafferty, Henry W., Paris, Ill. Rafferty, Ora, Paris, Ill. Rainforth, Lyman R., Leavenworth, Indiana Rans, Edgar, Kewanna, Indiana Rasor, Everett E., Warsaw, Indiana Rawley, Ezra L., Freedom, Indiana Ray, Herman, Riley, Indiana Ray, Howard A., Terre Haute, Indiana Ray, .r ohn L., Terre Haute, Indiana Ray, .Julian V., Stilesville, Indiana Rea, Howard A., Bridgeton, Indiana Reagan, Edgar W., Mauckport, Indiana Reynolds, Ralph F., Terre Haute, Indiana Rhinehart, Ray M., Francesville, Indiana Rhoads, Paul, Terre Haute, Indiana Rice, Verner .r., Terre Haute, Indiana Richard, Wm. N., Tell City, Indiana Richards, August M., Terre Haute, Indiana Richarus, Walter W., Terre Haute, Indiana luchey, Herman G., Terre Haute, Indiana Rieckin, William, Mt. Vernon, Indiana Rickeberg, J. Maurice, Muncie, Indiana Riehl, Chas. Edward, Troy, Indiana Reavis, Jesse, Riggs, Floyd, Summitville, Indiana Clay City, Indiana R ecord s, Tho s. W ., Ringer, Reid Terre Haute, Indiana Rinkard, Samuel R., Reed, Loren, Castleton, Indiana Pimento, Indiana Risley, Orval A .. Redick, Wm. R. Oaktown, Indiana Ress, Leland, Ritter, Clay H., Converse, Indiana Plainville, Indiana Reid, Newton W., Quincy, Indiana Reynolds, Glenn R., Coal. City, Indiana Reynolds, Homer, Coal Cit~, Indiana 74 Roberts, Frank, Boonville, Indiana Roberts, Lewis C., Indian Springs, Indiana Robinson, Chas. H.,_ Veedersburg, Indiana r. t·, ' ·1·. ,•,· : THE SEM 1- CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION Robinson, Russel F., Roachdale, Indiana Rochelle, Charles Edward, Terre Haute, Indiana Roesinger, Oscar W., Indianapolis, Indiana Rogers, Clyde, Dunreith, Indiana Rohm, Harley M., Auburn, Indiana ' Roland, Sherman, West Baden, Indiana Roll, Grover, Sake!, Hubert H., Stendal, Indiana Sanders, Willet E., Merom, Indiana Sanford, Loren, Terre Haute, Indiana Sanm, Clarence D., Coalmont, Indiana Schaupp, Ralph, Linn Grove, Indiana Schenck, Ralph E., Lebanon, Indiana Schierling, Walter J., Riley, Indiana North Vernon, Indiana Ross, Ray Columbus, Indiana I Rotruck, Clarence D., Monticello, Indiana Rouch, Earl, Kewanna, Indiana Row, E. A., Clay City, Indiana Royer, Hershel, Cory, Indiana Royer, Hervey E., Saline City, Indiana Royse, Win. C., Terre Haute, Indiana Rumple, Ora E., Spencer, Indiana Rutherford, Elmer V., St. Paul, Indiana Rutherford, Lewis Rutherford, Vane R., Terre · Haut:e, Indiana Rutledge, William J., Judson, Indiana Schinnerer, Mark C., Riley, Indiana Schlegel, Clarence 0., Clay City, Indiana Schockel, Bernard H., Aurora, Indiana Schopmeyer, A. C., ,. Poland, Indiana Schorling, Raleigh, Batesville, Indiana Schroeder, Nelson F., . Carlisle, Indiana Schultz, Ernest J., Francesville, Indiana Scofield, John, Brazil, Indiana Scott, Ralph M., Kurtz, Indiana Scotten, Melvin E., Stilesville, Indiana Sechler, Ralph, st. Joe, Indiana Seybold, Arthur 75 ,',' ". I ''I ; \ . '·I '.,1, . •",I; I ': I 'I THE SEMI- CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION Shackelford, Basil, Eminence, Indiana Shaffer. Paul V., Huntington, Indiana Shahan, J. Raymond, Lebanon, Indiana Shanner, R: B. Shake, Shelby S., Cloverdale, Indiana Shanklin, W. A. Shanner, W. H., Ft. Branch, Indiana Shields, Jesse M., Crandall, Indiana Sigler, Russell, Elwood, Indiana Simon, Fred A., DePauw, Indiana Simpson, Jas. L., Terre Haute, Indiana Singer, Vernon D., Sanborn, Indiana Sink, Chester, Charlestown, Indiana Sharp, John, Sipe, James E., Whiting, Indiana Saratoga, Indiana Sharp, Kenneth S., Skelton, H. B., Coatesville, Indiana Bowling Green, Indiana Shaw, Clyde, Sibert, George, Riley, Indiana White Cloud, Indiana Shelten, Ray, Rochester, Indiana Sherrill, Evan M., New Amsterdam, Indiana Shirley, Wm. E., Bedford, Indiana Shoemaker, Irwin C., Bluffton, Indiana Shofstall, Paul R., Terre Haute, Indiana Short, Orville C., Center Point, Indiana Shotwell, John, West Union, Ill. Showatter, Paul, Liberty, Indiana Shriner, Walter, Huntington, Indiana Sickbert, A., Skinner, Walter, Evansville, Indiana Slude, Adron B., Zionsville, Indiana Smaii, Aria Leo, Ridgeville, Indiana Smiley, Ralph W., Williams, Indiana Smith, Alger, Colfax,Indiana Smith, Chas. W., Sanborn, Indiana Smith, Elmer L., Oakland City, Indiana Smith, Evart, Martinsville, Indiana Smith, Virgil, Markle, Indiana Smith, Virgil 0., Holland, Indiana Cannelsburg, Indiana 76 ·'I .\1, 't Si Si ~;I ~~ :i ,I Jl St, II i! St1 II .f::f: jl lI:":. ~tl :::1 ~I: ' /f St1 I II !I THE SEMI- CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION Smith, Walter G., Owensburg, Indiana Smith, Millard, Bicknell, Indiana Smith, Paul IC, Loogootee, Indiana Smith, Ralph W., Acton, Indiana Smith, Robert F., Goldsmith, Indiana Smith, Roy R., Bristow, Indiana Snyder, Alonzo, Terre Haute, Indiana Spark'3, Ralph, Monticello,· Indiana· Spencer, Hoyt, Terre Haute, Indiana Spuller, Lawrence, Decatur, III. Stark, John, Cass, Indiana Stark, Judson, Hymera, Indiana Starks, Lambert, Flat Rock, Indiana Stephenson, B. F., Windfall, Indiana Stevens, Vv. D., New Salisburg, Indiana Stewart, Emmet c., vVhitestown, Indiana Stigler, Roy c., Brazil, Indiana Stoneburner, Worth, Cory, Indiana Stork, Harvey E., Huntingburg, Indiana Storm, Harry, Clay City, Indiana Storms, Vernon K., Loogootee, Indiana Stotz, Raleigh, , Vallonia, Indiana Strickler, Fred, North Manchester, Indiana Strickler, Robert, . North Manchester, !~diana Stroud, Milby Raymond, Birdseye, Indiana Sublette, Myrick, Taylorsville, Indiana Sublette, Sherman, Taylorsville, Indiana Summers, Newel M., Riley, Indiana Tower, Indiana Sutton, Arle H., Stevenson, Paul, Columbus, Indiana Stephenson, C. A., Zionsville, Indiana . Stephenson, Thos., Algiers, Indiana Stephenson, Winchell R., Paoli,. Indiana Swango, Joe, Worthington, Indiana Swango, Mervin E., Worthington, Indiana Swinford, Basil, Anderson, Indiano Stevens, Odie E., Farmersburg, Indiana Sylvester, Thos. 77 THE SEMI CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION Taylor, Lee, English, Indiana Thomas, Ray, Terre Haute, Indiana Thomas, Thomas C. Thompson, Benj. R. Thompson, Jesse H., Odon, Indiana Thompson, l\faurice M., New Priladelphia, Indiana Thompson, Parke L., Rockville, Indiana Thompson, Richard E., Jasper, Indiana Thompson, Roger M., New Philadelphia, Indiana Thompson, Ward T., New Philadelphia, Indiana Tierney, E. L., North Vernon, Indiana Timmons, Chas. Clyde, Andrews, Indiana Tierney, J. L., North Vernon, Indiana Tucker, Russell, Cory, Indiana Turman, Arthur F., Terre Haute, Indiana Turman, Claude Kenneth, Cynthiana, Indiana Turne~, Eugene G., West Terre Haute, Indiana Unverferth, Wm. C., Freelandville, Indiana Van Cleave, A. R., Lewis, Indiana Van Cleave, Ira H., Salem, Indiana Van Pelt, Clinton, Clinton, Indiana Vermillion, John, Greencastle, Indiana Volker, Fred, Somerville, Indiana Wagner, Clarence J., Freelandville, Indiana 'Walden, Simon, Crawfordsville, Indiana Tower, James H., Wall, F. J., Leavenworth, Indiana Ridgeville, Indiana Tranbarger, J. C., Wall, Jno. W., Forest, Indiana Traylor, Fitzhugh, Montgomery, Indiana Trimmer, Jas, N., Riley, Indiana Trotter, Russel, Hardinsburg, Indiana Tryen, Boyd E., :Monroe City, Indiana Tucker, Lester R., Osgood, Indiana 78 Carlisle, Indiana Walsh, Jno. R., Terre Haute, Indiana Wakefield, Walter, Jasonville, Indiana Wann, Hubert, Terre Haute, Indiana Warmoth, Raymond, Monrovia, Indiana Warner, Irvin B., North l\fanchester, Indiana \l 1111 \1: I'd 1\'r r,·r \\1 \\1 ',','h 1\'lJ \\1J '.','hi .I,, 1\'ib ,, l , I 1\'ibl ~I :i J I ! . .l :I i 1 'I. I THE SEMI- CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION. Warrinel', Earl, Brooklyn, Indiana Watson, Courtney, Terre Haute, Indiana Weaver, Silvin D., Brazil, Indiana Webber, Thomas, Plainville, Indiana Weber, Jno. Glenn, Clay City, Indiana Webster, Marcus H., Carbon, Indiana Welch, 0. D., Bridgeton, Indiana Wells, Wm. F., Mt. Vernon, Indiana Wesner, L. D., Campbellsburg, Indiana Wells, Milton ,M., Mt. Vernon, Indiana Wright, Wendell Wm., Greencastle, Indiana Wheeler, Max, Terre Haute, Indiana Whelan, Lloyd, Terre Haute, Indiana Whippo, Wm., . North Terre Haute, In:bana White, Roy D., Greenfield, Indiana Whitehead, Clarence, Otwell, Indiana whittenburg, Harry W., Terre Haute, Indiana 'Wible, Ralph E., Farmersburg, Indiana Wibbler, Benj., Holland, Indiana Wiggs, Geo. A., Spurgeon, Indiana Wildman!. Roscoe E .. Denver, Indiana Williams. John Williams, Paul B .. Farmersburg, Indiana Williams, Leonard S., Haubstadt, Indiana Willis, F. E., Algiers, Indiana Witty, Paul A., Terre Haute, Indiana Wilm, John, Haubstadt, Indiana Wilson, Arthur T. Wilson, Noble, Bargersville, Indiana Wilson, Oral, Prairieton, Indiana Wilson; Otis Aurora, Indiana Wilson, Paul, Prairieton, Indiana Wilt, James Napier, Hillsboro, Indiana Wimmer, Perley, Rosedale; Indiana Winklepeck, A. 1f., Elnora, Indiana Winter, Harry D., Pershing, Indiana Wisely, Edson W., . Terre Haute, Indmna Witt, Chester R., Roachdale, Indiana Wood, Frederick, . Zionsville, Indiana 79 ,li .I I I ;! II 'I I ! ,· THE SEMI- CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION vVood, 'Jesse _A., Wythe, Leroy C., Bedford, Indiana Terre Haute, Indiana Woods, Walter, Yeager, Walter, Terre Haute, Indiana Francisco, Indiana Woods, Willard L., Younts, Stanley P., Zionsville, Indiana · Brookville, Indiana Woodcox, Willie Grey, Young, Luke F., St. Joe, Indiana Washington, Indiana Wright, Homer, Yocum, Simeon D., Clinton, Indiana Carlisle, Indiana Wright, Oliver Dennis, Cloverdale, Indiana Ya;yer, Sylvan A., Advance, Indiana Zerbe, Walter B., Terre Haute, Indiana Eastern Division, Muncie, Indiana Addington, Orvah Armstrong, Walter Otis Austin, Ralph V. Bailey, Ralph Vernon Bales, Harold Bantz, John Benjamin, Ernest Brammer, Daniel Brindel, Clyde Brooks, Hova Brouse, Cecil Brown, Harold Brown, Howard Brubaker, Harold Carpenter, Kenneth Campbell, Arthur Cortner, Paul Costin, Leroy Coulson, Lawrence Craig, Ronald Curtis, Ralph Dailey, William Dilts, Edgar 80 Dragoo, Ralph Elgaway, Messi Ellison, Dale Ellsworth, Willis England, Charles England, George Fager, Edwin Fields, Thomas Foster, Kenneth Fowlie, Everett Fraze, Vere French, Clifford Furst, Russell Garinger, Orville Glasgow, Joseph Goddard, Joseph Green, Frank Greene, LeRoy Harding, George Harding, William Hardsog, Harley Hatcher, Harry Hazelrigg, Harry L', \!c) )fl) ~il: 'I )fill .!fit! .,, ,•[()(• :.rile !.lo]r '·!on .'!o0 .'[rrr 1 ;.[,Jr. ~·iYeJ O,bt l'alh l'ar); . hrl!c l'rrrt1 lited I:eeu neite I:ette ::; J I .' THE SEMI- CENTENNIAL CELEBRATlON Heagy, William Henderson, Irving Frank Hollowell, Quimba Howell, Leander Hughes, Claude Isely, Samuel James, Ora Jellison, Leonard Jenkins, Delbert ~ Jolliffe, Francis Keener, Donald Keller, Edwin King, Frank Knight, Don Lane, Byron Laven, Chas. Lennington, Abraham Locke, Orlando Longwith, Guy McKee, Donald McMahan, H. Neil McManus, Rex :tvfcNaughton, Hugh l\fauller, Charles MaA.·well, Harold Mettler, Donald Miller, Paul Mitchell, Ralph l\fochwart, Howard Mock, Charles Moler, Russell Monks, Merritt Moore, Thos. Morgan, Byron Murray, Herbert Myer, Joseph Osbun, Clifford Palin, Marvin Park, Frank :Pollock, James Porter, Clyde ·Reed, Hubert Reed, John Reitenour, Chas. Retter, Roy Riddleberger, Jesse Rightsell, Glendon Root, Claude Schlenker, Everett Schug, Edgar Schull, Hubert Scott, Arthur Scott, Donald Sleeth, Haines Sharp, Herbert Sheller, Howard Silvers, Honor Sloniker, Lawrence Smail, Aria Smith, Clifford Smith, Joseph Smith, William Sowers, James Spuller, Lawrence Stanley, Morris Stewart, Morris Stout, Bruce Stout, Leslie Stratton, Ray Striker, Carl Stuck, Harold Taylor, William Teagle, Everett Treasure, Clyde Trotter, Ralph Tyler, C. Melvin Uebele, Lowell Vice, Harold Wade, Frederick Waite, Richard Ware, Noel West, Merril Williams, Dewey Williams, Eugene Williams, Lyle Williams, Marshall Wilson, Frank Wolfe, Hobert Young, Earl 81 Nor mal Training High School Terre Haute Bartholomew, Henry W., '14 Briggs, Herbert Jr., '16 Brinkman, Richard J., '15 Bronson, Paul, '15 Brown, Charles E., '11 Cashmore, Harold F., '18 Charman, Howard R., '10 Cooper, Robert J., '18 Cox, Paul S., '15 Cox, Warren R., '10 Dailey, John E., '11 Drake, Thorn. Earl, '11 Fishback, George, '13 Froeb, Karl A., '16 Gillum, Joseph S., '10 Gillum, Richard P., '15 Gray, Frederick W., '11 Gwinn; Lawrence, '11 Hecklesberg, Edwin A., '17 Hoffman, Herman M. J., '18 J aenish, Edward T., '17 Lawrence, Stanley 0., '18 Leibing, Robert H., '19 Lockwood, Roy C., '12 McAllister, Philip S., '18 Mandeville, Marten J., '14 Manson, Mahlon E., '12 82 Neukom, Albert H., '10 N eukom, Oliver W., '13 Newton, R. Wayne, '16 Owens, Myric, '12 Paddock, Richard, '15 Piety, John K., '15 Rettger, Robert E., '1! Robt, William R., '18 Rynick, George ]\{. Jr., '17 Sanford, John M., '11 Schlicher, Rudolph, '16 Schloss, Philip J., '13 Schloss, Harold, '15 Scott., Richard W., '13 Smith, Raymon M., '14 Streeter, H. Winton, '15 Streeter, William A., '17 Sulger, Alden H., '14 Swearingen, Mark, '17 Turman, Arthur S., '14 w·agoner, Willys P., '16 Walsh, John R., '16 \Vhissen, Harry R., '10 Wisely, Edsori W., '17 Williams, Willis E., '18 Wood, Clifford, '17 Young, Clift, W., '16 \ ll Women of the Nor mal Engaged in War Work in Camp or Abroad Sara E. Carpenter ................ Cloverland Indiana A. l • .. tl .. merican Library" Association-served as Base Hos-pital Librarian in camps. Imogene Hope Kauffman ...... , ... Huntington, Indiana Y. W. C. A. work in camp. Ariel Anderson ................. Huntingburg, Indiana (U. S. Army Nurse Corps.) Nurse in camp. Martha Royse ................... Terre Haute, Indiana In France. Nora \Vright .......................... Sullivan, Indiana U.S. Army Nurse Corps. Mercedes Penna . .- ................ Terre Haute, Indiana (U .. S. Army Nurse Corps.) Nurse in camp. · Mary Engle ........................ :. Carlisle, Indiana Nurse in camp. Ina Frances Keith ................ Shelbyville, Indiana U. S. Army Nurse Corps. Mary Turney Technician-Base Hospital, Fort Benjamin Har-rison. ,Jean Town le y .... · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Evansville ' Indiana Entertainer in Camps in France. Mary Wilhite ....................
AuthorIndiana State Normal School
RepositoryIndiana State University Archives, Cunningham Memorial Library, 6 1/2 Street, Terre Haute, Indiana, 47809, http://library.indstate.edu/archives.
Date Digital2012-12-17
Date Original1920
CoverageUnited States -- Indiana -- Vigo County -- Terre Haute -- 1920
SubjectIndiana State Normal School
Indiana State University
College buildings
WV3 SubjectEducation
still image
Material TypeBooks
Technical Metadataapplication/pdf; Canon EOS 5D; Adobe Acrobat 10.1.4; 300 dpi; 8-bit grayscale; 1-bit bitonal;
RightsDigital Image copyright 2012 Indiana State University Archives, 6 1/2 Street, Terre Haute, Indiana, 47809
Identifieruar2.1 Provost and VP for Academic Affairs / Catalogs series
Item IDisua-catalog-1920-anniversary
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